LymeNet NederlandInformatie over de ziekte van Lyme
NB: dit forum is per 1 november 2014 gesloten. Zie deze mededeling: Sluiting van het LymeNet Nederland forum.
De AB die ik hier boven heb genoemd zijn toch geen tetracyclines of wel ? Dat zou dus dan niet de goede keuze zijn.
het zal een hele klus worden dat allemaal uit te pluizen.
De arts waar we nu zijn is er van overtuigt dat Debby lyme heeft.
YvonneW. schreef: Ik vind het sowieso zo krom dat na het behandelen met AB van in dit geval dan de mycoplasma en de helicobacter er naderhand niet gekeken word of deze werkelijk weg zijn, er wordt dan gewoon automatisch aan genomen het is behandelt en daarna is het ok.
Objective: We examined the blood of 48 North American Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
(CFS) patients subsequently diagnosed with Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi and compared these to
50 North American CFS patients without evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi infections for presence of
Mycoplasma spp. co-infections using forensic polymerase chain reaction. Results: We found that
68.75% of CFS/Lyme patients show evidence of mycoplasma co-infections (Odds Ratio=41.8,
Confidence Limits=11.26-155.16, p<0.001) compared to controls, whereas 50% of CFS patients
without a diagnosis of Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi show mycoplasma co-infections (OR=19.0,
CL=5.25-68.78, p<0.001 compared to controls). Since CFS patients without a diagnosis of Lyme
Disease have a high prevalence of one of four Mycoplasma species and a majority show evidence of
multiple infections, we examined CFS/Lyme patients’ blood for various Mycoplasma species. We
found that CFS patients with Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi mostly had single species
mycoplasma infections (OR=31.67, CL=8.63-116.16, p<0.001) with a preponderance of M. fermentans
infections (50% of patients, OR=59.0, CL=7.55-460, p<0.001), whereas the most commonly found
Mycoplasma spp. in CFS patients without Lyme Disease was M. penumoniae (34% of patients.
OR=14.94. CL=3.25-68.73, p<0.001). Conclusions: The results indicate that a subset of CFS patients
show evidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, and a large fraction of these patients were also
infected with Mycoplasma fermentans and to a lesser degree with other Mycoplasma species
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients can be subdivided into clinically relevant
subcategories that may represent different disease states or co-morbid conditions or illnesses (1-5). An
important subset of CFS patients is characterized by the presence of chronic bacterial and viral
infections (3-16). Identifying systemic infections, such as those produced by Mycoplasma species (3-
9), Chlamydia pneumoniae (9, 10), Human Herpes Virus-6 (HHV-6) (9, 11-13) and Brucella species
(14), is likely to be important in determining the treatment strategies for many CFS patients. Although
no single underlying cause has been established for CFS, there is growing awareness that CFS can
have an infectious nature that is either causative, a cofactor for the illness or appears as an
opportunistic infection(s) that cause or enhance patient morbidity (15, 16). There are several reasons
for this (15), including the nonrandom or clustered appearance of CFS, sometimes in immediate family
members (15-17), the presence of certain signs and symptoms associated with infection, the often
cyclic course of the illness and its response to anti-microbial therapies (4, 15, 16).
Recently it has become apparent that some CFS patients have Lyme Disease (18). Lyme
Disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America and has been reported widely the
USA and Eastern Canada. First described in Southeastern Connecticut in 1975, the infection is caused
by a tick bite and the entry of the spiral-shaped spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (19) and other coinfections,
including Mycoplasma fermentans (20). Here we investigated the presence of mycoplasma
infections in CFS patients who were also diagnosed with Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi and
compared them to CFS patients who tested negative for Borrelia burgdorferi.
Previously we reported that chronic bacterial and viral infections appear to be a rather common
feature of CFS, and most CFS patients examined had multiple infections (9, 14, 24). Since CFS
patients often report that their CFS signs and symptoms slowly evolved after acute infections, this
result is not unexpected (9, 16, 25). Also, the severity of CFS signs and symptoms appear to be related
to the number of chronic infections but not their specific type (26).
CFS patients have also been diagnosed with Lyme Disease (18), and Eskow et al. (20) have
found that the attachment of ticks and subsequent appearance of musculoskeletal signs and symptoms
is associated with systemic M. fermentans infections (20). Thus it was not unexpected that CFS
patients with evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi infections would also show evidence of Mycoplasma
species in their blood. What is interesting is that the predominant presence of M. fermentans in the
Borrelia burgdorferi-positive CFS patients is consistent with the finding of this species of Mycoplasma
in ticks collected from the environment (20).
Previously we studied North American and European CFS patients and found that most showed
evidence of mycoplasma infections (5, 9, 14, 24-26). Like Borrelia burgdorferi, Mycoplasma spp. are
slow-growing, fastidious, intracellular infections that can invade a variety of tissues but they can also
present as superficial infections (27-29). Others who studied CFS patients also found evidence of
widespread mycoplasma infections (6-8). When we examined the incidence of particular mycoplasma
infections in North American CFS patients, we found that the most common species found was M.
pneumoniae and most patients had multiple mycoplasma infections, which were for the most part
combinations of M. fermentans and other mycoplasma species (9, 24, 26). However, in a study on
European CFS patients a slightly different picture was found (5). The most common species found in
Belgium and Dutch patients was M. hominis, and there was a lower overall rate of multiple
mycoplasma co-infections in the European CFS patients (5). We also found that more than 50% of
North American patients with rheumatoid arthritis had mycoplasma infections, and in the majority of
these patients multiple mycoplasma co-infections were found (23, 27).
Patients with the Lyme Disease spirocyte Borrelia burgdorferi usually have multiple coinfections
involving bacteria other than Mycoplasma spp., such as Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp.
as well as protozoan species of Babesia (30, 31). Ehrlichia species are small, gram-negative,
pleomorphic, obligate intracellular infections similar to mycoplasmas in their structures, intracellular
locations and resulting signs/symptoms (32). The other common bacterial co-infection is caused by
Bartonella spp. (33), and this co-infection (along with Mycoplasma spp.) appears to be one of the
most common tick-borne co-infections found with Borrelia burgdorferi. Bartonella spp., such as
Bartonella henselae, which also causes cat-scratch disease (34), is often found in neurological cases of
Lyme Disease (33, 35). A non-bacterial co-infection found with Borrelia burgdorferi is the
intracellular protozoan Babesia spp. (36). There are over 100 species of the genus Babesia, but most
Lyme Disease co-infections in humans in North America are caused by Babesia microti and in Europe
by Babesia divergens and Babesia bovis (37, 38).
In CFS multiple infections are associated with more severe signs and symptoms (26), and
similarly when multiple infections are present in Lyme Disease, the number of signs/symptoms and
their severity and duration are usually greater in the early stages of disease (36). In Lyme Disease
patients with multiple co-infections can present with high fever, chills, generalized weakness,
gastrointestinal symptoms (anorexia, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, among others),
anemia, muscle and joint pain, respiratory problems and dark urine. The combination of Borrelia,
Mycoplasma and Babesia infections can be lethal in some patients (about 7% of patients can have
disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome and heart failure), but the
majority of patients with tend to have the chronic form of the disease. In Babesia infections patients
can show mild to severe hemolytic anemia (probably correlating with the protozoan colonization of
erythrocytes, which can be seen by experienced individuals in blood smears) and a normal to slightly
depressed leukocyte count (36). However, these symptoms are usually not seen in patients who have
progressed to the chronic phase of the disease, which can be similar in presentation to CFS
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