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Berichten: 1515
Lid geworden op: Ma 24 Dec 2012 17:00

Re: Bartonella

Berichtdoor Foetsie » Za 4 Jan 2014 20:26

Marlene zegt:
als alle topics waar het woord Klinghardt in verschijnt naar de vuilbak verdwijnen, wordt het moeilijk lezen hier op het forum. Met onze brainfog niet echt bevorderlijk voor de duidelijkheid.

Dat niet alleen, moet je de CV van die man eens zien, ER ZIJN WEINIGEN DIE DAAR AAN KUNNEN VOLDOEN: ... hardt.html


Berichten: 2342
Lid geworden op: Di 19 Apr 2011 19:52

Re: Bartonella

Berichtdoor Tulipano » Za 1 Feb 2014 19:06

Molecular Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Questing Adult Ixodes pacificus Ticks in California

C. C. Chang,1 B. B. Chomel,1,* R. W. Kasten,1 V. Romano,2 and N. Tietze2
Date: April 2001


Ticks are the vectors of many zoonotic diseases in the United States, including Lyme disease, human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichioses, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Most known Bartonella species are arthropod borne. Therefore, it is important to determine if some Bartonella species, which are emerging pathogens, could be carried or transmitted by ticks. In this study, adult Ixodes pacificus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation in three sites in Santa Clara County, Calif. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing of 273 bp of the gltA gene were applied for Bartonella identification. Twenty-nine (19.2%) of 151 individually tested ticks were PCR positive for Bartonella. Male ticks were more likely to be infected with Bartonella than female ticks (26 versus 12%, P = 0.05). None of the nine ticks collected at Baird Ranch was PCR positive for Bartonella. However, 7 (50%) of 14 ticks from Red Fern Ranch and 22 (17%) of 128 ticks from the Windy Hill Open Space Reserve were infected with Bartonella. In these infected ticks, molecular analysis showed a variety of Bartonella strains, which were closely related to a cattle Bartonella strain and to several known human-pathogenic Bartonella species and subspecies: Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, B. washoensis, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. These findings indicate that I. pacificus ticks may play an important role in Bartonella transmission among animals and humans.

Bron: Journal of Clinicla Microbiology

Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission

Date: March 31, 2008

Clinical studies supporting tick transmission of Bartonella species in humans

Lucey et al. (1992) published the first human case reports suggestive of B. henselae infection associated with a tick bite. Two male patients complained of recurring fever, myalgia, arthralgias, headache and sensitivity to light within weeks after tick attachment. Bacteria were recovered from the blood of both patients using culture methods and PCR analysis demonstrated B. henselae infection. One of the patients did not recall any cat scratches or bites prior to the onset of clinical symptoms, and no cat contact was mentioned for the second patient (Lucey et al., 1992). Although the authors could only speculate that transmission occurred via tick bite, it is quite interesting that the B. henselae infections transpired within such a short time of tick attachment.

In a clinical survey performed in Connecticut, patients diagnosed with CSD were matched with control cases to demonstrate the likely risk factors associated with CSD (Zangwill et al., 1993). Patients were matched with individuals who were approximately the same age and each participant had to own or have exposure to cats. Questionnaire answers suggested that patients were more likely to have owned a kitten, had contact with a kitten with fleas, and to have been bitten or scratched by a kitten than control cases. However, patients were also more likely to have been bitten by a tick than controls, although additional risk factors for tick contact may have been involved. Of 56 patients, 21 had been bitten by at least one tick vs. five individuals in the control group (Zangwill et al., 1993). It is clearly evident that being bitten or scratched by a kitten increases the likelihood of contracting B. henselae; however, this study suggests that contact with ticks cannot be ruled out as a viable mode of transmission.

Subsequent cases indicate that co-infections of Bo. burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, and B. henselae may have occurred in humans in both the U.S.A. and Europe. In one case series, three of four patients from New Jersey, U.S.A. had chronic Lyme disease and two had a history of tick bites (Eskow et al., 2001). No improvement in symptoms occurred despite treatment with Borrelia-specific antibiotics. Bartonella henselae, as assessed by PCR, was found in the blood of all four patients and was also amplified from several I. scapularis ticks collected at the homes of two patients (Eskow et al., 2001). Although B. henselae can be transmitted by cat scratch or bite, three of the four patients reported very limited contact with cats.

In Poland, Podsiadly et al. (2003) described two patients hospitalized with clinical symptoms of neuroborreliosis suggestive of co-infection with Bo. burgdorferi and B. henselae. Patient 1 was Bo. burgdorferi seroreactive and B. henselae DNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid. Patient 2 was seroreactive to both B. henselae and Bo. burgdorferi antigens at a titre of 1 : 32. The authors of the manuscript proposed that the exposure to B. henselae occurred via tick bite; however, contact with other arthropod vectors must be considered.

Other interesting report (published in an English abstract of a Russian text) describes a molecular survey performed using blood samples obtained from patients sustaining tick bites in the summers of 2003 and 2004 in the Novosibirsk region of Russia (Morozova et al., 2005). A nested PCR targeting the groEL gene detected Bartonella DNA closely related to B. henselae and B. quintana in patient blood samples. In another European study, Slovenian children were assessed by serology for exposure to multiple tick-borne infections within 6 weeks of a tick bite (Arnez et al., 2003). Of the 86 children tested, five were B. henselae seroreactive and four were B. quintana seroreactive. Another child, diagnosed with Lyme borreliosis, was B. henselae and B. quintana seroreactive (Arnez et al., 2003). Unfortunately, no non-tick bite control population was concurrently tested and pre-exposure samples were not available. A more recent study, performed by Breitschwerdt et al. (2007a), screened immunocompetent individuals with prior animal and arthropod contact for the presence of Bartonella species. Of 14 people tested, B. henselae and/or B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was detected in blood or in pre-enrichment culture or from a blood agar plate. All patients had had occupational animal contact for > 10 years and all had sustained previous arthropod exposure from fleas, ticks, biting flies, mosquitoes, lice, mites or chiggers (Breitschwerdt et al., 2007a). Studies of this type strengthen evolving evidence suggesting Bartonella species are being transmitted by currently unidentified arthropod vectors, such as ticks.

Bron: Medical and Vetrinary Entomology ... 713.x/full

Bartonella henselae in Ixodes ricinus Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) Removed from Humans, Belluno Province, Italy

Yibayiri O. Sanogo,* Zaher Zeaiter,* Guiseppe Caruso,† Francesco Merola,† Stanislav Shpynov,* Philippe Brouqui,* and Didier Raoult
Date: March 2003


The potential role of ticks as vectors of Bartonella species has recently been suggested. In this study, we investigated the presence of Bartonella species in 271 ticks removed from humans in Belluno Province, Italy. By using primers derived from the 60-kDa heat shock protein gene sequences, Bartonella DNA was amplified and sequenced from four Ixodes ricinus ticks (1.48%). To confirm this finding, we performed amplification and partial sequencing of the pap31 protein and the cell division protein FtsZ encoding genes. This process allowed us to definitively identify B. henselae (genotype Houston-1) DNA in the four ticks. Detection of B. henselae in these ticks might represent a highly sensitive form of xenodiagnosis. B. henselae is the first human-infecting Bartonella identified from Ixodes ricinus, a common European tick and the vector of various tickborne pathogens. The role of ticks in the transmission of bartonellosis should be further investigated.


Berichten: 2042
Lid geworden op: Zo 15 Feb 2004 16:21

Re: Bartonella

Berichtdoor RobertF » Wo 5 Feb 2014 21:28

Maggi et al. Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:101

Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son potentially associated with tick exposure
Ricardo G Maggi1,3*, Marna Ericson2, Patricia E Mascarelli1, Julie M Bradley1 and Edward B Breitschwerdt1

Background: Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic, alpha Proteobacterium, historically associated with cat scratch
disease (CSD), but more recently associated with persistent bacteremia, fever of unknown origin, arthritic and
neurological disorders, and bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis hepatis in immunocompromised patients. A family
from the Netherlands
contacted our laboratory requesting to be included in a research study (NCSU-IRB#1960),
designed to characterize Bartonella spp. bacteremia in people with extensive arthropod or animal exposure. All four
family members had been exposed to tick bites in Zeeland, southwestern Netherlands. The mother and son were
exhibiting symptoms including fatigue, headaches, memory loss, disorientation, peripheral neuropathic pain, striae
(son only), and loss of coordination, whereas the father and daughter were healthy.
Methods: Each family member was tested for serological evidence of Bartonella exposure using B. vinsonii subsp.
berkhoffii genotypes I-III, B. henselae and B. koehlerae indirect fluorescent antibody assays and for bacteremia using
the BAPGM enrichment blood culture platform.
Results: The mother was seroreactive to multiple Bartonella spp. antigens and bacteremia was confirmed by PCR
amplification of B. henselae DNA from blood, and from a BAPGM blood agar plate subculture isolate. The son was
not seroreactive to any Bartonella sp. antigen, but B. henselae DNA was amplified from several blood and serum
samples, from BAPGM enrichment blood culture, and from a cutaneous striae biopsy. The father and daughter were
seronegative to all Bartonella spp. antigens, and negative for Bartonella DNA amplification.
Conclusions: Historically, persistent B. henselae bacteremia was not thought to occur in immunocompetent
humans. To our knowledge, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the possibility of persistent
B. henselae bacteremia in immunocompetent persons from Europe. Cat or flea contact was considered an unlikely
source of transmission and the mother, a physician, reported that clinical symptoms developed following tick
exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a B. henselae organism has been visualized in and amplified
from a striae lesion. As the tick bites occurred three years prior to documentation of B. henselae bacteremia, the
mode of transmission could not be determined.
Keywords: Bartonella, BAPGM, Bacteremia, Striae, Neuropathy, Neurological disorder

Berichten: 1515
Lid geworden op: Ma 24 Dec 2012 17:00

Re: Bartonella

Berichtdoor Foetsie » Do 6 Feb 2014 20:25

Hoi Robert,

Is dat niet precies hetzelfde onderzoek als wat ik een paar postjes terug hier op 22 okt 2013 heb geplaatst?....
Nu staat het er dubbel. ... 6bih%3D919

Dit is de kopie voor als je het misschien over het hoofd hebt gezien:

door Foetsie » di 22 okt 2013 16:28 ... 6bih%3D919

Kat of vlo contact werd beschouwd als een onwaarschijnlijke bron van overdracht en de moeder, een arts, meldde dat de klinische symptomen ontwikkelden na blootstelling teek

Foto's van de straie:
Foetsie Berichten: 827Geregistreerd: ma 24 dec 2012 16:00

Ik vind het niet erg hoor
Want hoe meer mensen hierover weten, des ter beter!

Berichten: 2342
Lid geworden op: Di 19 Apr 2011 19:52

Re: Bartonella

Berichtdoor Tulipano » Di 11 Feb 2014 22:59

The occurrence of spotted fever rickettsioses and other tick-borne infections in forest workers in Poland.

Podsiadły E, Chmielewski T, Karbowiak G, Kędra E, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S.


The presence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii, R. helvetica, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. sibirica, and R. massiliae in sera of 129 forest workers from northeastern and southern Poland was assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. Previous environmental studies revealed presence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks collected from these areas. Additionally, the workers were examinated for the presence of antibodies specific to other tick-borne bacteria: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., and B. burgdorferi. The results of the studies have shown the presence of specific SFG rickettsiae antibodies in 14.7% of tested forest workers, among them 78.9% had species-specific antibodies to R. massiliae. Contrary to previous detection R. helvetica and R. slovaca in ticks collected in the environment of the examined area, no species-specific antibodies to these species were detected in studied workers. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi (44%) were found in forest workers more often than antibodies to other tested pathogens. B. burgdorferi was also the main component of coinfections. The most frequent confirmed serologically coinfections were simultaneous infections with B. burgdorferi and Bartonella spp. found in 10% of tested individuals. So far, SFG rickettsiae infections have not been diagnosed in Poland; however, the presence of the bacteria in ticks and presence of specific antibodies in humans exposed to arthropods show the need for monitoring the situation. The list of tick-borne pathogens is increasing, but knowledge about the possibility of humans acquiring multipathogens infections after tick bite still needs evaluation.

Bron: Pubmed
Datum publicatie: juli 2011

Berichten: 2342
Lid geworden op: Di 19 Apr 2011 19:52

Re: Bartonella

Berichtdoor Tulipano » Di 11 Feb 2014 23:59

Martijn schrijft in: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=8351&start=20

Tulipano schreef:
Martijn schrijft:

NB: het is (nog steeds) niet wetenschappelijk vastgesteld of Bartonella door teken op de mens kan worden overgedragen en een actieve infectie kan veroorzaken.

Zie: viewtopic.php?f=13&t=7271&start=30
Publicatie van Pubmed, juli 2011

In die studie wordt het ook niet vastgesteld.In die studie wordt het ook niet vastgesteld.

Sorry Martijn, misschien is mijn kennis van de Engelse taal niet zo best maar ik meen toch te mogen veronderstellen dat:

a) in de titel van betreffende studie duidelijk de woorden 'tick-born infections' worden geciteerd;
b) de betekenis van onderstaande zin als volgt vertaald mag worden:

The most frequent confirmed serologically coinfections were simultaneous infections with B. burgdorferi and Bartonella spp. found in 10% of tested individuals.

De meest voorkomende aangetoonde (bevestigde) co-infecties waren simultane (gelijktijdige) infecties met B. Burgdorferi en Bartonella spp, gedetecteerd in 10% van de geteste personen.

Als je even op de homepage kijkt van dan kun je zien dat daar als volgt aan deze studie wordt gerefereerd:

Bartonella, de meest voorkomende co-infectie (10%) in bosarbeiders in Polen


Berichten: 2966
Lid geworden op: Do 23 Okt 2003 22:40
Locatie: Friesland

Re: Bartonella

Berichtdoor Martijn » Wo 12 Feb 2014 0:22

In de studie werd gezocht naar antilichamen. Uit de uitkomsten kan niet geconcludeerd worden dat Bartonella via een beet van een teek is verkregen.

Naar mijn mening worden er in de abstract van de studie door verkeerd woordgebruik onjuiste suggesties gewekt en/of trekken de auteurs verkeerde conclusies.

Berichten: 2342
Lid geworden op: Di 19 Apr 2011 19:52

Re: Bartonella

Berichtdoor Tulipano » Wo 12 Feb 2014 0:58

Uit de uitkomsten kan niet geconcludeerd worden dat Bartonella via een beet van een teek is verkregen.

Daar heb je een punt Martijn. Maar een sterke aanwijzing dat teken tot potentiele vectoren kunnen worden gerekend is er kennelijk wel (tenzij er weer sprake is van verkeerd woordgebruik natuurlijk):

Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission.

Case studies and serological or molecular surveys involving humans, cats and canines provide indirect evidence supporting transmission of Bartonella species by ticks. Of potential clinical relevance, many studies have proposed co-transmission of Bartonella with other known tick-borne pathogens.

Bron: Pubmed
Maart 2008

Berichten: 191
Lid geworden op: Ma 14 Okt 2013 20:01

Re: Bartonella

Berichtdoor Josie » Wo 12 Feb 2014 13:25

Martijn heeft daar inderdaad een punt. De conclusies staan er vaker niet letterlijk bij genoemd, alleen de bevindingen van de metingen die op de een of andere manier tot stand zijn gekomen. Ik denk ook dat het belangrijk is om daar op te letten, de plaats, het aantal patiënten, de methoden. Dat is hoe ze wetenschappelijk formuleren, maar ook als ze er zelf vol van overtuigd zijn een conclusie zeker te weten zullen ze het voorzichtig formuleren. En ik denk tegelijkertijd al die verschillende onderzoeken bij elkaar, die allemaal aangeven dat de kans er is dat je door een tekenbeet een bartonella-infectie kan krijgen, dat we het serieus moeten nemen. Dat de kans er is is op zich al erg genoeg. Het staat ook op en
Mijns inziens is iedere kans op een ziekte die of mechanisme dat een hele hoop kan verklaren, kans op een succesvolle behandeling.
Ik ben zelf geen levend bewijs waar conclusies uit getrokken kunnen worden, ik heb een positieve IgM bartonella henselae én ik heb een kat én ik heb diverse tekenbeten, muggenbeten, bloedzuigerbeten, daasbeten, zandvliegbeten, wespensteken, (katten-)vlooienbeten én ik heb rare huiduitslag gehad. Én mijn immuunsysteem is al lang niet meer okee. Én tot nu toe ook nog weinig succes met behandeling.

Ik vond zelf ook wat over bartonella na een insectenbeet, een klein linkje op de site van het rivm naar een groot artikel van een nederlands onderzoek in de journal of clinical microbiology and infection. Om de tekst te verkorten heb ik naar eigen inzicht wat stukken weggelaten waar de puntjes staan.
Endocarditis in a Dutch patiënt caused by bartonella quintana. A. M. C. Bergmans, J. L. Coenen, R. Bakhuizen, B. W. Mooi, A. R. Ramdat Misier, B. Wilbrink, L. M. Schouls, M. J. H. M. Wolfhagen,

A 74-year-old man (not homeless or otherwise neglected) was admitted to hospital because of general malaise, weight loss and leukocytosis. A year earlier, he had been bitten by an insect on the ankle, which remained swollen for several weeks....
Because the general condition of the patient gradually worsened, and because of the positive Borrelia serology, empirical intravenous treatment with amoxicillin–clavulanic acid was started. Following this treatment, the condition of the patient improved and the leukocyte count normalized. Antibiotic treatment of the patient was continued using oral amoxicillin 500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks....
Seven months after the first hospitalization, the patient was readmitted to the hospital with complaints of dyspnea and tiredness. At this stage, a heart murmur was heard....The leukocyte count had risen to 30.4 × 109/L...The patient died 3 weeks after surgery, from septicemia and pulmonary hemorrhage....
Within a 9-month period in 1995, five serum samples were taken from the patient... Although the Borrelia-specific IFA initially indicated the presence of high Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibody titers, Western blotting analysis and Borrelia burgdorferi-specific EIA did not reveal Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgG or IgM antibodies in any of the patient's serum samples...DNA sequence analysis of this PCR fragment revealed 100% identity with two 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bartonella quintana present in the EMBL nucleotide sequences database..We propose Bartonella quintana as the cause of the patient's subacute endocarditis on the basis of a positive Bartonella PCR, hybridization with a Bartonella quintana-specific DNA probe, 16S–23S spacer RFLP analysis, and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis on DNA extracts from the aortic valve....Additionally, we found high IgG and IgM titers against both Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana... The EIA IgG and IgM antibody titers found in the patient were elevated during the 9-month period of the disease, and IgM antibodies could be detected by EIA over a period of nearly 8 months...
This case has three remarkable aspects. First, it shows again that the diagnosis of endocarditis can be missed in the evaluation of fever of unknown origin when physical examination reveals no abnormalities and repeated blood cultures are negative. Second, (false-) positive Borrelia serology, together with some aspects of the history such as an insect bite, led to a wrong working diagnosis during the first episode of the disease. Third, leukocytosis and myeloproliferative reaction of the bone marrow, although rather nonspecific features, were pronounced, and this has not been described earlier in patients with endocarditis due to Bartonella; leukocyte counts reported until now in those patients have ranged from 1.7 × 109/L to 13.0 × 109/L [1,3,5–10].
The route of transmission of Bartonella quintana is not known. The epidemiology of trench fever implies inter-human transmission of Bartonella quintana via the body louse. The patient described in this report kept good care of his personal hygiene, clothes and housing. No evidence of infestation by body lice was found. He did not use alcohol or drugs, and was not diabetic, and there was no reason to perform HIV serology. He had frequent contact with his relatives, and he lived with his sister for some months after his first stay in the hospital. The fact that none of the tested relatives had IgM antibodies to Bartonella species indicates that transmission of Bartonella quintana from or to those persons is not very likely. The patient's vegetable garden, from which he had occasionally removed dead rats (mammals that may serve as a reservoir), was located in a semirural area. Alternatively, he may have acquired his infection from the insect bite that he sustained earlier...
The incidence of endocarditis due to Bartonella may be much higher than we know. Many cases may be unrecognized due to the slow growth of Bartonella species. The implementation of recently developed molecular techniques may lead to an increase in the number of reports on endocarditis due to Bartonella species over the next few years.


Berichten: 1515
Lid geworden op: Ma 24 Dec 2012 17:00

Re: Bartonella

Berichtdoor Foetsie » Wo 12 Feb 2014 20:50

Het punt is dat er dus WEL bartonella in Nederland in mensen is gevonden:

Maggi et al. Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6:101

Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son potentially associated with tick exposure
Ricardo G Maggi1,3*, Marna Ericson2, Patricia E Mascarelli1, Julie M Bradley1 and Edward B Breitschwerdt1

De vraag hoort nu te zijn, zoals het verslag al aangeeft:
Is deze zoonose bartonella overgedragen door een teek?

De moeder, een arts zegt van wel.


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