Van alles m.b.t. Vitamine D

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bamboe
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Lid geworden op: Di 23 Dec 2008 4:30

Re: Van alles m.b.t. Vitamine D

Berichtdoor bamboe » Za 24 Apr 2010 11:23

http://www.cbc.ca/canada/montreal/story ... study.html

'Epidemic' of vitamin D deficiency: MUHC study

McGill research has discovered that low levels of vitamin D is linked to muscle fat and decreased strength in young people.

Last Updated: Friday, March 5, 2010 | 2:20 PM ET Comments130Recommend147.
CBC News
Vitamin D sits on a shelf in a Dartmouth, N.S. drug store. A McGill University Health Centre report has revealed that over half of their study subjects were vitamin D deficient. (Andrew Vaughan/Canadian Press)
A deficiency of vitamin D in study subjects has surprised doctors at the McGill University Health Centre.

A study, released Thursday, found that 59 per cent of study subjects had too little vitamin D in their blood and nearly a quarter of the group had serious deficiencies.

"Vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for other diseases," said Dr. Richard Kremer, the principal investigator of the study at the research institute.

"Because it is linked to increased body fat, it may affect many different parts of the body. Abnormal levels of vitamin D are associated with a whole spectrum of diseases, including cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes, as well as cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders," he said.

How much vitamin D do I need?

The Canadian Cancer Society recommends Canadians take in 1,000 IU of vitamin D every day. During the spring and summer, that can be accomplished through normal daily exposure to the sun. In the fall and winter months, a vitamin D supplement may be necessary.
Deficiencies in the so-called "sunshine" vitamin have been linked to increased visceral fat, decreased muscle strength and overall health problems.

The new study, which is to be published in the March 2010 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, is the first to show a clear link between vitamin D levels and accumulation of fat in muscle tissue.

"The lower the levels of vitamin D, the more fat in subjects," said Kremer.

Though the study shows a clear link, there is still no clear evidence that vitamin D supplementation could result in less fat in muscles or increased muscle strength.

"We need more research before we can recommend interventions," said Kremer.

Health Canada recommends adults 19 to 50-years-old need 200 international units (IU) of vitamin D per day. That includes pregnant and lactating women. Everyone over the age of 50 is advised to take a daily supplement of 400 IU of vitamin D.

The Canadian Cancer Society recommends taking 1000 IU of vitamin D a day in the fall and winter months.


Read more: http://www.cbc.ca/canada/montreal/story ... z0m0YGOTd7


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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. Vitamine D

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 25 Apr 2010 9:06

http://tinyurl.com/379r22e

The journal of Pediatrics Volume 156, Issue 5, Pages 698-703 (May 2010)


Vitamin D and the Magic Mountain: The Anti-Infectious Role of the Vitamin

Vitamin D status has become a “hot topic” in human nutrition.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 In part, the concept of osseous and non-osseous effects of the active form of the vitamin underlies this expanded emphasis on vitamin D nutrition.

There are 2 mechanisms by which human beings acquire vitamin D: ingestion from the diet and synthesis after exposure to sunlight. The discovery that appreciable segments of human populations are vitamin D-deficient or -insufficient,3, 8 with the finding that essentially all human tissues contain a vitamin D receptor (VDR), has led to new interest in the vitamin D system and the mechanisms of its hormonal action.1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 Although the role of this secosteroid hormone on skeletal status has long been recognized,6, 11, 16 recent and mounting evidence suggests that it affects immune function and can protect against cancer, cardiovascular disease, infection, and autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus.2, 6, 11, 14, 17

Vitamin D status is best assessed by measuring circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) values.1, 4, 5, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15 Large population surveys, such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, indicate that substantial segments of infant, child, and pregnant women populations are vitamin D-deficient or -insufficient.3, 7, 12, 13 Parenthetically, the association of infection and vitamin D deficiency has long been noted, and some of these biologic effects were described more than a century ago, even before the concept of vitamins had been surmised.

Recently, it has been hypothesized that subjects' vitamin D status can be divided into ranges of serum 25(OH)D concentrations termed deficient, insufficient, or sufficient. One study defined 25(OH)D values <15 ng/mL as deficient, those 15 to 30 ng/mL as insufficient, and those >30 ng/mL as sufficient. Traditionally, a serum 25(OH)D value <10 ng/mL has been considered the cutoff point for deficiency.2, 18 A division into “deficient” and “sufficient” with a cutoff point of 20 ng/mL has been proposed, but many people have serum 25(OH)D levels this low.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 These concentrations should be viewed as approximate guides to vitamin D status and may vary slightly with the season or latitude

There can be concern about vitamin D toxicity from overdosing. Current guidelines from the Section on Breastfeeding and the Committee on Nutrition of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend “that all infants and children, including adolescents, have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 μg) of vitamin D beginning soon after birth.”19 Because of northern latitudes, the Canadian Paediatric Society recommends increasing vitamin D intake from 400 IU/day to 800 IU/day between October and April above the 55th parallel. These doses are felt to be safe and effective in preventing vitamin D deficiency.19, 20

Although mineral balance is regulated by the calcium-vitamin D-parathyroid hormone (PTH)-endocrine system,6 many of the non-skeletal effects of vitamin D appear to operate outside this tight feedback-controlled endocrine loop,5, 6, 18, 21, 22 and thus are independent of regulation by serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH levels.

Ultimately, our understanding of the complex clinical effects of the vitamin and implications of its insufficiency rests on 3 degrees of evidence. This is especially relevant for the immunomodulation roles of vitamin D and its skeletal effects. The first is observation and association, such as children with rickets are more likely to develop pneumonia or tuberculosis (TB) than children without rickets.2, 6, 11, 16 Second, on the basis of epidemiologic studies of defined populations, gradations of vitamin D status have clinical implications. For example, deficiency or insufficiency can be associated with infection after dental procedures, other infections,2, 6, 9, 11, 15 or pneumonia.16 Third, vitamin D and its metabolites operate at tissue, cellular, and nuclear sites6, 9, 22 and likely alter immune function at a subcellular level.21, 22 Again, we now know more about the anti-infectious role of vitamin D; this level of function is not under the tight feedback control of the vitamin D endocrine system.22

The association of vitamin D with infectious disorders has actually been recognized for more than a century, but clinicians believed that infections caused rickets.16, 23, 24, 25 It is timely to examine infections during the epidemic of rickets that occurred from 1650 to 1930. This review will examine some of the infectious complications of vitamin D deficiency with a historical perspective and the currently understood anti-infectious mechanisms of action of activated vitamin D. This story is still unfolding and forms a fascinating chapter in the story of vitamin D.




Vitamin D as an Immune Modulator
In the past 15 years, we have sought mechanisms to account for the non-osseous effects of vitamin D. Vitamin D, particularly in its active form, 1,25(OH)2D, is appreciated as a secosteroid that functions as a gene transcription factor. After binding to a VDR, this complex is then translocated to an intranuclear site.6, 17 VDRs are found in >30 tissue types, including the heart, intestine, liver, kidney, lungs, and various immune cells, such as thymic and bone marrow T and B cells.6, 11, 17 After binding of 1,25(OH)2D to VDRs, a heterodimerization with a retinoid X receptor (RXR; eg, 9-cis retinoic acid) occurs, and after translocation into the nucleus and binding to DNA, the transcriptional regulation of >200 proteins occurs. These proteins not only influence calcium and phosphate homeostasis, but also cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and immune function.6, 17, 21, 31

The various cells of the immune system—antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells), macrophages, and T and B cells—express VDRs. This expression may be constitutive or induced post-stimulation.31 Expression of 25(OH)D vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27b1) is found in monocytic and dendritic cells after immune stimulus.32 1,25(OH)2D appears to act on all immune-related cells.6, 22, 31 This active form of vitamin D blocks dendritic cell maturation. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D influences T cell gene expression of an impressive set of cytokines (interleukin [IL]1, lL2, IL I2, IL 17, interferon gamma [INFγ]) required for antigen presentation to T cells. Additional immunomodulating features include anti-proliferative and pro-differentiative actions, with both immune enhancement and suppression.17, 21 An effect of 1,25(OH)2D action is to reduce activation of the acquired immune system, especially in dampening the development of or enhancement of autoimmune disorders (eg, multiple sclerosis or type 1 diabetes mellitus).6, 17, 18, 31, 33 Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D can also ameliorate either experimental or spontaneous autoimmune disorders in rodent models of experimental allergic encephalitis, nephritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes mellitus.6, 17, 31, 32 Epidemiologic studies in humans indicate that vitamin D intake early in life may reduce risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus, with risk reduction of 78% with 2000 IU/day.32 Although these studies strongly suggest a role of optimizing perinatal and neonatal vitamin D status in the prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus, randomized prospective trials are only now being conducted. However, examination of this vast array of immune disorders is beyond the scope of this review. Hence, we will focus on innate immunity and respiratory infections.




Influence on Innate Immunity
Although 1,25(OH)2D action dampens the effects of activation of the acquired immune system relative to autoimmunity, this hormone has key actions that enhance the innate immune system.6, 17, 21, 33 The influence of vitamin D on innate immunity is dependent on tissue concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D and is regulated by 2 enzymes: the activating 25(OH)D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27b1) and its catabolic counterpart, 25(OH)D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24).6 The entry of 25(OH)D, the main substrate for CYP27b1 and CYP24, into the cell depends on 25(OH) binding to D-binding protein (DBP) and subsequent recognition, internalization, and intracellular release of this molecule.17, 33, 34, 35

The innate immune system begins with the epithelial barrier between the bacteria abundant in the outside environment and the effectively sterile host. When bacterial products gain entry to the host, they are recognized by a class of receptors in the plasma membrane of macrophages known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). These TLRs recognize a panoply of antigens, including nucleic acids, lipids, and peptides.17, 36 When bound, these TLRs recruit various adaptor proteins (eg, MyD88) that turn on signaling pathways, many of which terminate in the transaction of NFκB. This innate immune response is activated by antigens that result in up-regulation of the VDR and activation by 1,25(OH)2D.37 The VDR promotes antigen processing, phagocytosis, and IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α production,21, 36, 37, 38 which form the mechanisms by which foreign antigens are ultimately eliminated.

The macrophage is capable of accumulating 25(OH)D and locally producing 1,25(OH)2D. Adams and his group21 have postulated this forms “a primitive, non-endocrine biological system designed to control immune responsiveness to invading antigens.” They opine that this primitive immune system may phylogenetically pre-date the vitamin D endocrine system that controls divalent mineral balance, because 1,25(OH)2D production is not feedback regulated by prevailing serum mineral concentrations.

The metabolism of 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D as a local event appears to differ in the innate (macrophage) and acquired (dendritic cell) immune cells. The macrophage expresses CYP27b1, necessary for 1,25(OH)2D synthesis, but not 25(OH)D 24 hydroxylase.21 In part this is because infection/inflammation results in INFγ-induced STAT1α (signal transducer and activators of transcription-1α) activity, which down-regulates CYP24 expression (Figure).17 Hence, 1,25(OH)2D levels in the cell remain high. Activation of the TLR system in the macrophage can also work through this STAT1α pathway. This might explain why patients with an extrarenal macrophage or granulomatous source of active vitamin D lack the ability to down-regulate further synthesis of this molecule after exposure to exogenous 1,25(OH)2D. If macrophages in pleural effusions die and then leak 1,25(OH)2D into the extracellular milieu (which results in increased calcium absorption by the intestine), these patients may become hypercalcemic and hypercalciuric.39 As mentioned, there is no feedback regulation of macrophage vitamin D metabolism.

Activation by TLR type 2/1 ligand (TLR2/1L) binding results in vitamin D-dependent induction of fundamental antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). It also has been shown that IL-15 and IL-4 can stimulate macrophage differentiation, but only IL-15 can induce CYP27b1, resulting in VDR activation, and induce the synthesis of a specific AMP, namely cathelicidin.40 It is theorized that 25(OH)D in sufficient concentrations within the macrophage can trigger IL-15-differentiated macrophages to induce specific AMPs that act against intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis.21, 38, 39, 40 IL-15 links TLR2/1-induced macrophage differentiation to the vitamin D-dependent pathway. Although IL-15 classically promotes differentiation and activation of lymphocytes (for example, NK, B and T cells) and induces T cell memory, it also activates monocytes/macrophages.40 The picture that is emerging is that vitamin D acts through cytokine pathways to form defensins, endogenous AMPs that result in intracellular killing of organisms that have invaded the cell.21

As aforementioned, another aspect of inflammation and infection is that the up-regulation of CYP24 is hampered by INFγ-sustained STAT1α, which results in sustained elevated 1,25(OH)2D levels and continuing production of AMPs.17 This VDR-related action to combat infection may have an intracrine effect within the same cell or a paracrine effect on a neighboring cell.

TB is a prototypical infection that is influenced by vitamin D status41 and by the innate immune response.17, 21, 39, 40 Macrophages stimulated by live M tuberculosis produce large amounts of 1,25(OH)2D. In particular, TLR1/2-primed macrophages kill M tuberculosis, whereas the bacterium survives inside TLR1/2-primed dendritic cells.33 When macrophages are infected with fluorescein-labeled BCG (tuberculosis vaccine—“bacillus of Calmette and Guerin”) both cathelicidin and the organism are co-localized to the macrophage cell membrane.22, 33

Consistent with these fundamental cellular mechanisms defining the importance of adequate 25(OH)D values is the finding that reduced serum 25(OH)D is associated with a higher risk for active tuberculosis, as discerned by meta-analysis.


Vitamin D Status and Implications for Infection
The role of vitamin D status in innate immunity helps explain some of long-held views on the role of sunlight in the clinical course of TB. Both clinical observations and epidemiologic studies exist that show that M tuberculosis is suppressed by sunlight exposure and by habitation at higher elevations.42 TB is more common in patients with rickets and vitamin D deficiency per se6, 22; it is also more prevalent in dark-skinned individuals whose melanin blocks out the UV wavelength necessary for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis.6, 9 What is now understood is that innate immunity against M tuberculosis is influenced by serum 25(OH)D concentration, and the organism is killed by cathelicidin, synthesized after macrophage production of 1,25(OH)D.33 Thus, in essence, the autocrine immune action of macrophages is positively influenced by vitamin D sufficiency.

The practice of treating subjects with TB in a sun-exposed open air mountainous location (a “sanatorium”) has been impressively described in Thomas Mann's Nobel Prize-winning bildungsroman The Magic Mountain (Der Zauberberg).43 A Nobel prize was given to Niels Finsen in 1903 for his observation that sun exposure was an effective treatment for cutaneous tuberculosis. We now understand the dual influence of high altitude, which has lower concentrations of ozone, an element that absorbs photons of light, and of sunlight, which results in greater photocutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. Higher serum 25(OH)D values are achieved per unit of time and more substrate is available for pulmonary macrophage synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. This in turn enhances cathelicidin synthesis. In essence, the effect of sunlight exposure at higher elevation is to enhance innate immunity.

Epidemiologic evidence also suggests that vitamin D may be involved in the seasonality of influenza. In 1981, Hope-Simpson proposed that “a seasonal stimulus” for the onset of influenza was associated with a reduction in solar radiation.44 It had long been known that clinical influenza is clustered during the winter regardless of the hemisphere. However, for the modern indoor worker, the extent of crowding does not differ by the season.45 In experimental attenuated influenza infection in volunteers, a proof of hypothesis is that infection occurs predominantly in winter.46 Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that for many areas of the world, influenza occurs during the months after the winter solstice, when circulating 25(OH)D concentrations are their lowest, and disappears after the summer solstice.47 This raises the question whether the seasonal decline in circulating 25(OH)D concentrations might represent the “seasonal stimulus factor” at latitudes above 40°, which is associated with increased case rates for influenza.47 Recall that sunlight-related photocutaneous synthesis of vitamin D in late fall and winter is virtually absent at such latitudes.6, 9

Vitamin D status appears to influence the risk of developing both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia. Clinical vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 13-fold increased risk of pneumonia in Ethiopian children younger than 5 years. 48 In Yemen, half the children admitted for lower respiratory tract infections were rachitic,49 and 43% of children in Kuwait with rickets had pneumonia.50 Subclinical vitamin D deficiency and non-exclusive breast feeding in the first 4 months formed a risk for lower respiratory tract infections in Indian children.51 These reports from 1989 to 2004 are reminiscent of the high rates of pneumonia in rachitic children in Glasgow23, 25, 26, 27, 28 and in the reports of Park and Howland.16, 30 Although it has long been presumed that vitamin D deficiency induces muscle weakness, especially of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, which leads to impaired clearance of respiratory secretions and can lead to lower respiratory tract infections, the immunologic impairment of vitamin D deficiency is probably also important. Consistent with this idea is a recent study that showed that serum 25(OH)D levels are significantly and inversely associated with upper respiratory infection.52 The percent of subjects with a recent upper respiratory infection and a serum 25(OH)D level <10 ng/mL was higher in winter than in summer. Controlling for all variables, serum 25(OH)D levels <10 ng/mL in patients with asthma were associated with 5.67 higher odds of upper respiratory infections compared with patients with asthma with levels >30 ng/mL.



Conclusion

The risk of respiratory infections, including TB, influenza, pneumonia, and other upper and lower respiratory tract infections, is much greater in children with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D <10 ng/mL). This inverse relationship between vitamin D status (low in winter and high in summer) and infection is what was found when rickets was epidemic. Recent experiments have shed light on the immune-enhancing properties of vitamin D, especially involving innate immunity and localized monocyte production of vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial proteins (cathelicidin) that combat M tuberculosis and other infectious agents. The concept prevalent in the late 19th century that infections caused rickets can now be reversed, because mechanisms exist by which vitamin D deficiency leads to increased infection rates.

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vonneke
Berichten: 7127
Lid geworden op: Do 16 Jun 2005 20:57

Re: Van alles m.b.t. Vitamine D

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 25 Apr 2010 9:09



J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Apr 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Health benefits of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in The Netherlands.

Grant WB, Schuitemaker G.

Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC), P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA.

Abstract
A large and rapidly expanding body of scientific literature exists on the roles of vitamin D in maintaining optimal health and reducing the risk of chronic and infectious diseases.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels for optimal health are in the range of 40-60ng/mL; mean population values in The Netherlands are around 20-25ng/mL.

Health problems for which there exists good observational evidence and some randomized controlled trial evidence that vitamin D reduces risk include many types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, osteoporosis, falls and fractures, dementia, congestive heart failure, and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Reductions in incidence and mortality rates for various diseases and all-cause mortality rates can be determined from ecological, observational and cross-sectional studies and randomized controlled trials.

For The Netherlands, raising mean serum 25(OH)D levels to 42ng/mL is estimated to reduce specific disease rates by 10%-50% and all-cause mortality rates by 23%.
To raise serum 25(OH)D levels by this amount, inhabitants in The Netherlands would have to increase vitamin D production or oral intake by 2500-4000 IU/day.
Doing so would pose only minimal increased risks of melanoma or skin cancer or hypercalcemia.

Copyright C 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

PMID: 20398763

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bamboe
Berichten: 4028
Lid geworden op: Di 23 Dec 2008 4:30

Re: Van alles m.b.t. Vitamine D

Berichtdoor bamboe » Zo 25 Apr 2010 10:32

http://www.naturalnews.com/028357_vitam ... iency.html

Epidemic of Vitamin D deficiency sweeping the world

(NaturalNews) There is an epidemic of vitamin D deficiency sweeping across our modern world, and it's an epidemic of such depth and seriousness that it makes the H1N1 swine flu epidemic look like a case of the sniffles by comparison. Vitamin D deficiency is not only alarmingly widespread, it's also a root cause of many other serious diseases such as cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis and heart disease.

A new study published in the March, 2010 issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism found that a jaw-dropping 59 percent of the population is vitamin D deficient. In addition, nearly 25 percent of the study subjects were found to have extremely low levels of vitamin D.

Lead author of the study, Dr. Richard Kremer at the McGill University Health Center, said "Abnormal levels of vitamin D are associated with a whole spectrum of diseases, including cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes, as well as cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders."

This new study also documents a clear link between vitamin D deficiency and stored body fat. This supports a theory I've espoused here on NaturalNews for many years: That sunshine actually promote body fat loss. Vitamin D may be the hormonal mechanism by which this fat loss phenomenon operates.

The research findings on vitamin D, by the way, get even better...

Activator for the immune system
Recent research carried out at the University of Copenhagen has revealed that vitamin D activates the immune system by "arming" T cells to fight off infections.

This new research, led by Professor Carsten Geisler from the Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology at the University of Copenhagen, found that without vitamin D, the immune system's T cells remain dormant, offering little or no protection against invading microorganisms and viruses. But with vitamin D in the bloodstream, T cells become "armed" and begin seeking out invaders that are then destroyed and carried out of the body.

Vitamin D, in other words, acts a bit like the ignition key to your car: The car won't run unless you turn the key and ignite the engine. Likewise, your immune system won't function unless it is biochemically activated with vitamin D. If you're facing the winter flu season in a state of vitamin D deficiency, your immune system is essentially defenseless against seasonal flu. That's why all the people who get sick are the ones who live indoors, work indoors and exist in a chronic state of vitamin D deficiency.

That's also why virtually all the people who died from H1N1 were chronically deficient in vitamin D. They had virtually no immune system protection at all and were thus easy targets for the swine flu.

These findings about vitamin D "arming" the immune system were published in Nature Immunology. Commenting on the findings, the researchers said, "Scientists have known for a long time that vitamin D is important for calcium absorption and the vitamin has also been implicated in diseases such as cancer and multiple sclerosis, but what we didn't realize is how crucial vitamin D is for actually activating the immune system -- which we know now." (UK Telegraph, source below).

It seems the CDC and WHO remain utterly ignorant about this research or they would have been recommending vitamin D to fight the recent H1N1 pandemic rather than vaccine shots. Vitamin D would have been a far more effective (and less costly) defense against the pandemic than vaccine shots, especially given that even vaccines don't work unless there is an immune response, and that immune response requires the presence of vitamin D!

And while vaccine shots have undesirable side effects such as causing severe neurological damage in a small number of vaccine recipients, vitamin D's only significant "side effect" is that it prevents 77% of all cancers, too. (http://www.naturalnews.com/021892.html)

The common denominator for disease
What's becoming increasingly clear from all the new research is that vitamin D deficiency may be the common denominator behind our most devastating modern degenerative diseases. Kidney failure patients are almost universally deficient in vitamin D and diabetes patients are usually in the same category. People suffering from cancer almost always demonstrate severe vitamin D deficiency, as do people with osteoporosis and multiple sclerosis.

Barb70
Berichten: 377
Lid geworden op: Do 3 Dec 2009 19:36

Re: Van alles m.b.t. Vitamine D

Berichtdoor Barb70 » Vr 30 Apr 2010 9:13

Vitamine D boost: Colecalciferol 50.000 IE/ml
Op doktersrecept verkrijgbaar bij iedere apotheek.
1 keer het drankje opdrinken en na 30 dagen weer een keertje, dan zit je meteen goed met je waarden.

Gisteravond op TV als je vitamine D onder de 125 zit dan is je lichaam niet in staat om calcium en fosfor uit voeding te halen.

Voor vrouwen die last hebben van PMS, bleek dat als je 3 maanden een vitamine D rijk en Calciumrijk dieet volgt (o.a. vette vis en kaas) je 50 tot 80% vermindering van je PMS klachten hebt.
Verbluffend resultaat, wat onderzocht is in Australie, Amerika en Engeland

Martijn
Berichten: 2966
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Locatie: Friesland

Re: Van alles m.b.t. Vitamine D

Berichtdoor Martijn » Vr 30 Apr 2010 15:21

Barb70 schreef:Vitamine D boost: Colecalciferol 50.000 IE/ml
Op doktersrecept verkrijgbaar bij iedere apotheek.
1 keer het drankje opdrinken en na 30 dagen weer een keertje, dan zit je meteen goed met je waarden.

Gisteravond op TV als je vitamine D onder de 125 zit dan is je lichaam niet in staat om calcium en fosfor uit voeding te halen.


125 mg of 125 IE? En bedoel je dan de waarde van het bloed? In welke programma werd dat beweert?

Met onbedekte huid in de zon wordt ook binnen enkele minuten al een flinke hoeveelheid vitamine D gemaakt. Verder is bij voeding vette vis de beste bron van vitamine D. Dan krijg je tevens aardig wat omega-3 binnen. Je bent dus goed bezig als je geregeld een harinkje eet (in de zon).

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marietje
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Locatie: Zeeland

Re: Van alles m.b.t. Vitamine D

Berichtdoor marietje » Vr 30 Apr 2010 16:17

Vroeger kregen we in de wintertijd altijd Vitamine A-D tabeltjes...

Ik lust gen haring :roll:

Wat zijn de verschijselen van een tekort aan vitamine D?
Luctor et Emergo

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vonneke
Berichten: 7127
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. Vitamine D

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 2 Mei 2010 12:10

Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2010 Apr 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system.

Baeke F, Takiishi T, Korf H, Gysemans C, Mathieu C.

Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology (LEGENDO), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL), Herestraat 49 - O&N1 - bus 902, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Abstract
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the active form of vitamin D, is known to regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism, thus being a key-player in bone-formation. However 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also has a physiological role beyond its well-known role in skeletal homeostasis. Here, we describe 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) as an immunomodulator targeting various immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), as well as T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, hence modulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Besides being targets, immune cells express vitamin D-activating enzymes, allowing local conversion of inactive vitamin D into 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) within the immune system. Taken together, these data indicate that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plays a role in maintenance of immune homeostasis. Several epidemiological studies have linked inadequate vitamin D levels to a higher susceptibility of immune-mediated disorders, including chronic infections and autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the complex immune-regulatory effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on immune cells as well as its role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, more in particular in tuberculosis and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20427238

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. Vitamine D

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 2 Mei 2010 12:11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article ... ool=pubmed

Vitamin D and molecular actions on the immune system: modulation of innate and autoimmunity

Abstract

Vitamin D has received increased attention recently for its pleiotropic actions on many chronic diseases. The importance of vitamin D on the regulation of cells of the immune system has gained increased appreciation over the past decade with the discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and key vitamin D metabolizing enzymes expressed by cells of the immune system. Animal studies, early epidemiologic and clinical studies have supported a potential role for vitamin D in maintaining immune system balance. The hormonal form of vitamin D up-regulates anti-microbial peptides, namely cathelicidin, to enhance clearance of bacteria at various barrier sites and in immune cells. Vitamin D modulates the adaptive immune system by direct effects on T cell activation and on the phenotype and function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), particularly of DCs. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the molecular and clinical evidence for vitamin D as a modulator of the innate and adaptive immune system.



Conclusions

Innate and adaptive immune balance

Potent immunomodulatory activities of vitamin D on both innate and adaptive immune responses have been recently discovered [12, 22, 25, 99, 107–114]. While innate immunity is enhanced against “high-affinity” foreign antigens, vitamin D sufficiency has a dampening effect on the processing of “low-affinity” self antigens. Although the precise mechanisms are still being discovered, the important role of vitamin D in maintaining immune homeostasis should not be overlooked. Interventional studies to further define the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in humans need to be done.
In summary, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D on the immune system include decreasing Th1/Th17 CD4+ T cells and cytokines, increasing regulatory T cells, downregulation of T cell-driven IgG production and inhibition of dendritic cell differentiation. While enhancing protective innate immune responses, 1,25(OH)2D helps maintain self-tolerance by dampening overly zealous adaptive immune responses

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