Van alles m.b.t. MS

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Za 23 Jan 2010 17:07

Association Between Low Vitamin D Levels And Greater Risk Of Relapse In Childhood-Onset Multiple Sclerosis :

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/176753.php

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Za 6 Feb 2010 17:48

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/177722.php

The Season Affects Multiple Sclerosis Risk

Previous studies have shown multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are more often born in spring than in any other season, indicating that there is an environmental risk factor for the disease. A paper in the journal Neurology, reviewed for f1000 Medicine by Emmanuelle Waubant and Ellen Mowry, now suggests that this seasonal effect is mediated by the gene HLA-DRB1.

In many European populations, the HLA-DRB1*15 allele of this gene is associated with an increased risk of MS, and the large-scale study of MS patients from Canada, Sweden and Norway now shows that this allele is more common among patients born in the spring.

Waubant and Mowry said the study was "unique in its attempt to understand how genes and environment interact in MS". However, even though there is a correlation between birth month, genetics and risk of MS, it is not yet clear how this is regulated.

One likely contender is vitamin D, which influences expression of the HLA-DRB1*15 allele. Since vitamin D production fluctuates with the seasons, a vitamin D deficit in pregnant mothers could be related to the increased risk of MS among spring births, but this requires further investigation.

Waubant and Mowry said the study may influence preventative and therapeutic treatments through the understanding of environmental risks and their interaction with relevant genotypes.

Previous studies by the Neurology paper's authors showed that in people who carry the gene variant, a lack of vitamin D during early life might impair the ability of the thymus to delete rogue T cells, which then go on to attack the body, leading to a loss of myelin on the nerve fibres.

Study author Dr Sreeram Ramagopalan said that taking vitamin D supplements during pregnancy may reduce the risk of a child developing MS in later life. Government guidelines also recommend that children under five take daily vitamin D supplements.

Source: Steve Pogonowski
Faculty of 1000: Biology and Medicine

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 7 Mar 2010 12:39

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/181355.php

Researchers Find Further Evidence Linking Epstein-Barr Virus And Risk Of Multiple Sclerosis

Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and a team of collaborators have observed for the first time that the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) increases by many folds following infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This finding implicates EBV as a contributory cause to multiple sclerosis. The study appears in an advance online edition of the journal Annals of Neurology and will appear in a later print edition.

Hundred of thousands of individuals not infected with EBV were followed up for several years through repeated blood samples collections. Researchers were then able to determine the time when individuals developed an EBV infection and its relation to MS onset. "The recruitment of individuals before they were infected with EBV and following up with them for several years is the critical methodological aspect that makes this study qualitatively different from all previous work," said Alberto Ascherio, senior author of the study and professor of epidemiology and nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.

MS is a chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Women are more likely than men to get the disease and it is the most common neurologically disabling disease in young adults. Although genetic predisposition plays an important role in determining susceptibility, past studies have shown that environmental factors are equally important.

EBV is a herpes virus and one of the most common human viruses worldwide. Infection in early childhood is common and usually asymptomatic. Late age at infection, however, often causes infectious mononucleosis. In the U.S., upwards of 95% of adults are infected with the virus, but free of symptoms. EBV has been associated with some types of cancer and can cause serious complications when the immune system is suppressed, for example, in transplant recipients. There is no effective treatment for EBV.

This is the first study based on the longitudinal follow-up of several thousand individuals who were not infected with EBV at the time of recruitment. The study population was made up of active-duty US Army, Navy, and Marines personnel who have at least one blood sample in the Department of Defense Serum Repository. The electronic databases of the Physical Disability Agencies of the US Army and Navy were then searched for individuals whose records indicated a possible diagnosis of MS reported between 1992 and 2004.

The researchers selected 305 individuals diagnosed with MS and who had blood specimens collected before the date of their diagnosis. Two controls for each case were then selected from the serum database and matched by branch of service, sex, date of blood collection, and age at time of blood collection.

The study found that MS risk is extremely low among individuals not infected with EBV, but it increases sharply in the same individuals following EBV infection.

"The observation that MS occurred only after EBV is a big step forward," said Alberto Ascherio. "Until now we knew that virtually all MS patients are infected with EBV, but we could not exclude two non-causal explanations for this finding: that EBV infection is a consequence rather than a cause of MS, and that individuals who are EBV negative could be genetically resistant to MS. Both of these explanations are inconsistent with the present findings," said Ascherio.

"The evidence is now sufficiently compelling to justify the allocation of more resources to the development of interventions targeting EBV infection, or the immune response to EBV infection, as these may contribute to MS prevention," he said.

The study was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

"Primary Infection with the Epstein-Barr Virus and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis," Lynn I. Levin, Kassandra L. Munger, Eilis J. O'Reilly, Kerstin I. Falk, Alberto Ascherio, Annals of Neurology, online January 20, 2010

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Vr 12 Mar 2010 16:29

http://www.ntvg.nl/publicatie/ms-chroni ... g/volledig

MS chronische vaatafwijking?

Martin Kabos
Multipele sclerose (MS) is mogelijk geen chronische ziekte aan het centrale zenuwstelsel, maar een ziekte aan het vaatstelsel. De Italiaanse vaatarts Paolo Zamboni concludeert dat MS-patiënten vaak afwijkingen hebben aan vaten die door het centrale zenuwstelsel lopen. Deze zouden leiden tot afwijkende doorbloedingspatronen in de hersenen, die op hun beurt tot MS-afwijkingen zouden leiden.

Zamboni heeft na zijn beeldvormende onderzoeken inmiddels endovasculaire ballonkatheterisaties verricht bij 65 MS-patiënten. De arts uit Ferrara begon zijn onderzoeken toen bij zijn destijds 37-jarige vrouw MS geconstateerd werd en zij was ook de eerste patiënt die zijn team geopereerd heeft. 18 maanden na behandeling bleek het aantal patiënten zonder MS-aanvallen gestegen en het aantal met nieuwe MS-afwijkingen in de hersenen gedaald (J Vasc Surg. 2009;5:1348-58). De auteurs wijzen zelf op de beperkingen van hun onderzoek: het had geen controlegroep, was niet geblindeerd en patiënten mochten immuunsuppressiva blijven gebruiken. Zij bepleiten een geblindeerde en gerandomiseerde vergelijking van medicatie met en zonder vaatbehandeling.

In hun eerste publicatie in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2009;80:392-9) beschreven Zamboni et al. bij 91% van de MS-patiënten specifieke vaatafwijkingen. Dit onderzoek werd verricht bij 65 MS-patiënten en een controlegroep (n = 235). Allen werden onderzocht met kleuren-dopplerecho met hoge resolutie en selectieve venografie. De v. azygos bleek afwijkend bij 86% van de MS-patiënten en de vv. jugulares internae bij 91%. De auteurs spreken van chronische cerebrospinale veneuze insufficiëntie (CCSVI) en leggen verband met de verschillende typen MS.

Artsen van Buffalo University in New York hebben op 10 februari 2010 hun bevindingen bij een grote groep Amerikaanse MS-patiënten bekendgemaakt (http://www.buffalo.edu/news/10937). Zij vonden bij meer dan 55% van 256 patiënten vaatvernauwingen, tegenover bijna 26% van de controlegroep.

De bevindingen van Zamboni et al. hebben inmiddels ook aandacht in de lekenpers gekregen. Zo beschreef het ANP eind vorig jaar de vaatbehandeling (‘liberation treatment’) als mogelijke doorbraak in de MS-behandeling.

Het MS Amsterdam Centrum van het VU medisch centrum is een kleinschalig onderzoek bij 20 patiënten begonnen, met een controlegroep van 20 personen. Het centrum waarschuwt tegen voorbarig optimisme: ‘Ons advies blijft om af te zien van de behandelingen die op dit moment op een aantal plaatsen wordt aangeboden, zoals ballondilatatie of het plaatsen van stents. Het weinige onderzoek biedt geen enkele garantie dat de voordelen op lange termijn groter zullen zijn dan de nadelen.’ (Bijdrage: Matin Kabos.)

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 28 Mar 2010 15:10

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/183115.php

Study Explores Link Between Sunlight, Multiple Sclerosis

For more than 30 years, scientists have known that multiple sclerosis (MS) is much more common in higher latitudes than in the tropics. Because sunlight is more abundant near the equator, many researchers have wondered if the high levels of vitamin D engendered by sunlight could explain this unusual pattern of prevalence.

Vitamin D may reduce the symptoms of MS, says Hector DeLuca, Steenbock Research Professor of Biochemistry at University of Wisconsin-Madison, but in a study published in PNAS this week, he and first author Bryan Becklund suggest that the ultraviolet portion of sunlight may play a bigger role than vitamin D in controlling MS.

Multiple sclerosis is a painful neurological disease caused by a deterioration in the nerve's electrical conduction; an estimated 400,000 people have the disabling condition in the United States. In recent years, it's become clear the patients' immune systems are destroying the electrical insulation on the nerve fibers.

The ultraviolet (UV) portion of sunlight stimulates the body to produce vitamin D, and both vitamin D and UV can regulate the immune system and perhaps slow MS. But does the immune regulation result directly from the UV, indirectly from the creation of vitamin D, or both?

The study was designed to distinguish the role of vitamin D and UV light in explaining the high rate of MS away from the equator, says DeLuca, a world authority on vitamin D.

Since the 1970s, a lot of people have believed that sunlight worked through vitamin D to reduce MS," says DeLuca. "It's true that large doses of the active form of vitamin D can block the disease in the animal model. That causes an unacceptably high level of calcium in the blood, but we know that people at the equator don't have this high blood calcium, even though they have a low incidence of MS. So it seems that something other than vitamin D could explain this geographic relationship."

Using mice that are genetically susceptible to MS-like disease, the researchers triggered the disease by injecting a protein from nerve fibers. The researchers then exposed the mice to moderate levels of UV radiation for a week. After they initiated disease by injecting the protein, they irradiated the mice every second or third day.

The UV exposure (equivalent to two hours of direct summer sun) did not change how many mice got the MS-like disease, but it did reduce the symptoms of MS, especially in the animals that were treated with UV every other day, DeLuca says.

The research group also found that although the UV exposure did increase the level of vitamin D, that effect, by itself, could not explain the reduced MS symptoms.

In some situations, radiation does reduce immune reactions, but it's not clear what role that might play in the current study. "We are looking to identify what compounds are produced in the skin that might play a role, but we honestly don't know what is going on," DeLuca says. "Somehow it makes the animal either tolerate what's going on, or have some reactive mechanism that blocks the autoimmune damage."

MS is a progressive neurological disease with few effective treatments, but DeLuca stresses that the study, however hopeful, may or may not lead to a new mode of treatment. "There are several ways this could go. If we can find out what the UV is producing, maybe we could give that as a medicine. In the short term, if we can define a specific wavelength of light that is active, and it does not overlap with the wavelengths that cause cancer, we could expose patients who have been diagnosed with MS to that wavelength

Does this information change the common prescription to avoid excessive sun exposure? "If you have an early bout with MS, then you have to think about your options," says DeLuca. "Remember, this is just experimental work at this stage. Whether it can be translated into practical applications on MS remains to be seen

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Za 10 Apr 2010 20:10

Does Smoking Compound Other MS Risk Factors? :


http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/184720.php

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 2 Mei 2010 12:19

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/187057.php


Multiple Sclerosis Study Suggests Key Role Of Environmental Factor In The Disease

Scientists are reporting what they say is compelling evidence that some powerful non-heritable, environmental factor likely plays a key role in the development of multiple sclerosis.

Their finding, the cover article in the April 29, 2010 issue of Nature, results from the most advanced genomic analysis ever conducted on identical, or "monozygote," twins where one sibling has multiple sclerosis and the other does not.

"Even with the very high resolution at which we sequenced the genomes of our study participants, we did not find evidence for genetic, or epigenetic differences that explained why one sibling developed the disease and the other did not," says the lead author of the study, Sergio Baranzini, PhD, associate adjunct professor of neurology and a member of the Multiple Sclerosis Research Group at University of California, San Francisco.

The finding does not mean that genes do not play a role in the disease. In cases where one identical twin has MS, there is a 30-percent increased risk that the identical sibling also will develop the disease. In cases where a non-identical twin or other sibling has the disease, there is an increased risk of nearly 5 percent. However, says Baranzini, while limitations of current technology or small study size may have caused the team to miss important genetic divergence between twins, they consider the findings significant.

The study was the first to examine all three levels of a human genome at the same time, giving the first full picture of a living genome. The scientists examined the genome sequences of one MS-discordant identical twin pair and the messenger RNA transcriptome and epigenome sequences of CD4+ lympohoctyes from three MS-discordant identical twin pairs.

As a probe of a human genome, the study was a tour de force. The MS genome was explored at a depth of 20-fold coverage. By comparison, the first two single human genomes ever published - those of biologist and entrepreneur Craig Venter, PhD, followed by Nobel laureate James Watson, PhD - were sequenced at a depth of 7 to 8 fold coverage. In addition, the study investigated the first female genomes, the first genomes of twins and the first autoimmune disease individual genome sequences.

The next step in the team's research, says Baranzini, will be to look at genetic samples of additional MS-discordant twin pairs. "Since the study began, the cost of the 'next-generation sequencers' we used has come down dramatically. This will allow us to broaden the study."

As far as what environmental factor(s) could be playing a role in multiple sclerosis, the scientists did not speculate in their paper. The most prominent theory in the field is that a viral infection triggers the immune reactions that initiate the disease; Epstein-Barr virus is considered the most likely culprit. If this were the case, each person's unique genetic make-up would influence the body's immune reactions and determine whether they would lead to the disease. While no viral trigger for MS has been confirmed, several genetic risk factors have been identified. Other current hypotheses include vitamin D deficiency brought on by a lack of exposure to sunlight, and smoking.

Multiple sclerosis is thought to be an autoimmune disease, a condition in which cells of the immune system turn against a particular tissue of the body. In the case of MS, the attack, directed by CD4+ T-cell lymphocytes, occurs against myelin, the protective sheath that insulates nerve fibers. The attack causes hardened plaques within the brain and spinal cord that prevent electrical impulses from traveling between nerve cells, affecting neurological function

Because there is MS discordance in 70 percent of monozygote twin MS cases, scientists have suspected that both environmental effects and genetic components contribute to MS development. Recently, however, genetic (DNA) and epigenetic (DNA methylation or imprinting) differences between monozygote twins have been described. The current study was designed to investigate whether monozygotic twins are truly identical and whether there were genetic or epigenetic differences between identical twins that were discordant for MS.

"The results," says Baranzini, "put us a step closer to teasing out the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors on multiple sclerosis."

Interestingly, the researchers noticed a surprising difference between the genomes of twins that was not correlated to MS. They discovered an imbalance in which one copy of a gene is expressed at higher levels than the other copy. This phenomenon, known as allelic imbalance, causes differences in the levels of mRNA expression.

"We found many instances where an allelic imbalance was larger in one twin than in the other, or where the imbalance was flipped between the two alleles," said Baranzini. Those differences were unexpected and are likely to be of interest in future studies of twins, whether the focus is on MS or other diseases, he said

The study was conceived of by Stephen L. Hauser, MD, chairman of the Department of Neurology at UCSF, in collaboration with Jorge Oksenberg, PhD, UCSF professor of neurology. The genetic sequencing was conducted by scientists at the non-profit National Center for Genome Resources. The senior author of the study was Stephen F. Kingsmore, MB, ChB, BAO, a physician-scientist and president of NCGR, in Santa

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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Wo 5 Mei 2010 16:15

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/187249.php

Possible Link Between Multiple Sclerosis Brain Atrophy, Cognitive Function And Low Vitamin D Levels

Low vitamin D levels may be associated with more advanced physical disability and cognitive impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis, studies conducted by neurologists at the University at Buffalo have shown

Their results, reported at the American Academy of Neurology meeting, held earlier this month, indicated that:

- The majority of MS patients and healthy controls had insufficient vitamin D levels.


- Clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images show low blood levels of total vitamin D and certain active vitamin D byproducts are associated with increased disability, brain atrophy and brain lesion load in MS patients.


-A potential association exists between cognitive impairment in MS patients and low vitamin D levels


The MRI study involved 236 MS patients -- 208 diagnosed with the relapsing-remitting type and 28 with secondary progressive, a more destructive form of MS -- and 22 persons without MS.

All participants provided blood serum samples, which were analyzed for total vitamin D (D2 and D3) levels as well as levels of active vitamin D byproducts. MRI scans performed within three months of blood sampling were available for 163 of the MS patients.

Results showed that only seven percent of persons with secondary-progressive MS showed sufficient vitamin D, compared to 18.3 percent of patients with the less severe relapsing-remitting type.

Higher levels of vitamin D3 and vitamin D3 metabolism byproducts (analyzed as a ratio) also were associated with better scores on disability tests, results showed, and with less brain atrophy and fewer lesions on MRI scans.

Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, MD, UB associate professor of neurology/Jacobs Neurological Institute and director of the Baird Multiple Sclerosis Center, is first author on the study. Commenting on these results, Weinstock-Guttman said: "Clinical studies are necessary to assess vitamin D supplementation and the underlying mechanism that contributes to MS disease progression."

While lower-than-normal vitamin D status is known to be associated with a higher risk of developing MS, little is known about its relationship to cognitive impairment.

Sarah A. Morrow, MD, UB assistant research professor of neurology/Jacobs Neurological Institute and lead author on the cognitive-impairment study, compared vitamin D levels in blood samples of 136 MS patients with the results of their neuropsychological assessments that tested multiple types of cognition affected by MS.

"Results showed that MS patients who were impaired on tests of executive function -- critical reasoning and abstract thinking -- and the ability to plan and organize, were more likely to be deficient in vitamin D," said Morrow.

"This relationship held true when controlling for the season during which vitamin D was measured, as well as depression, which is known to be associated with lower vitamin D levels." Morrow noted there also was a suggestion that verbal fluency (word generation) and visual-spatial memory (learning and memory of shapes and figures) is more likely to be affected when vitamin D levels are not sufficient.

Morrow is continuing her research to clarify these relationships

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 13 Jun 2010 12:08

MS en erfelijkheid

De afgelopen jaren is veel onderzoek gedaan naar de werking van erfelijkheid.
De kennis over hoe - onder andere - ziektes worden overgedragen, is daardoo
enorm toegenomen. Ook naar de overdracht van MS is uitgebreid onderzoek
gedaan. Daarbij is gebleken, dat erfelijke factoren inderdaad een rol spelen
bij het krijgen van MS. En zelfs invloed kunnen hebben op het verloop van de
ziekte. Er zijn ook aanwijzingen gevonden hoe dat gebeurt


In deze brochure kun je lezen hoe erfelijkheid precies werkt, en wat er tot
toe bekend is over de rol van erfelijkheid - en andere factoren - bij MS :

http://levenmetms.nl/LinkClick.aspx?fil ... &tabid=210

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 13 Jun 2010 12:10

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/191163.php

Protein Lets Brain Repair Damage From Multiple Sclerosis, Other Disorders

A protein that helps build the brain in infants and children may aid efforts to restore damage from multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found.

In a mouse model of MS, researchers found that the protein, CXCR4, is essential for repairing myelin, a protective sheath that covers nerve cell branches. MS and other disorders damage myelin, and this damage is linked to loss of the branches inside the myelin.

"In MS patients, myelin repair occurs inconsistently for reasons that aren't clear," says senior author Robyn Klein, MD, PhD, associate professor of medicine and of neurobiology. "Understanding the nature of that problem is a priority because when myelin isn't repaired, the chances that an MS flare-up will inflict lasting harm seem to increase."

The findings appear online in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Scienc

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