Van alles m.b.t. MS

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Wo 16 Jun 2010 9:53

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/191712.php

Virus Infection May Trigger Unusual Immune Cells To Attack Nerves In Multiple Sclerosis

A virus infection can incite the body to attack its own nerve tissue by activating unusual, disease-fighting cells with receptors for both viral and nerve proteins. The dual-receptor observation suggests a way brain and spinal cord nerve damage might be triggered in susceptible young adults afflicted with multiple sclerosis (MS).

University of Washington Department of Immunology scientists Qingyong "John" Ji, Antoine Perchellet, and Joan M. Goverman conducted the study, which was published June 6 in Nature Immunology.

This is thought to be the first study to reveal a mechanism for autoimmune disease that depends on destroyer immune cells expressing dual receptors for a normal protein made by the body and a pathogen.

Multiple sclerosis is one of many autoimmune disorders in which the body's lines of defense become misguided and start damaging normal tissue. In the case of multiple sclerosis, the protective sheath around major nerves -- the myelin -- in the brain and spinal cord disintegrates. Like a frayed electrical cord, the nerves no longer transmit a clear signal.

People with multiple sclerosis might lose their ability to see, walk, or use their arms, depending on which nerves are affected. The symptoms can appear, disappear, and re-appear. The disease is more common in women than in men.

In healthy people, the immune system is kept in check to tolerate the usual proteins and cells in the body, much like an eager watch dog is put on a leash and trained to ignore friends and neighbors, yet still protect the family.

"Autoimmunity is believed to arise from an accidental breakdown in this tolerance of the body's own proteins. This breakdown is triggered by something in the environment, most likely a pathogen," noted Goverman, professor and acting chair of immunology whose research concentrates on the origins of autoimmune disease. Her lab is studying mechanisms that maintain tolerance, as well as the "tripping" mechanisms that defeat it.

In their most recently published study, her research team genetically engineered mice that over-produce a certain type of white blood cell from a group known as killer T cells. The normal function of killer cells is to attack tumor cells or cells infected with viruses or other pathogens. These T cells have receptors that recognize specific proteins that infected cells display to them, much like holding up a target in a window.

The specific killer T cells examined in this study were CD8+ T cells. The Goverman lab engineered mice to over-produce CD8+cells that recognized myelin basic protein, a predominant protein in the myelin sheath that covers nerves. The major question investigated in the study was whether the genetically engineered mice would exhibit a disease that resembled multiple sclerosis.

The researchers infected the mice with a virus that has itself been engineered to produce myelin basic protein. This infection should activate the CD8+T cells to first attack the virally infected cells making myelin basic protein to eliminate the virus, then kill other cells that make myelin basic protein to wrap around nerves. Killing those cells would destroy the myelin sheath.

As expected, the mice developed a multiple sclerosis-like disease. But the researchers were surprised when viruses lacking the myelin basic protein also triggered the disease.

Additional cross-breeding experiments revealed the existence of two receptors on a few of the CD8+T cells. These cells, engineered specifically to bind to myelin basic protein, also built their own receptors for viruses, and could recognize both. When exposed to cells infected with viruses, they would bind to and destroy them using one receptor. Geared up as if they were beserk, some of these double-agent cells then would head elsewhere to bind their other receptor to cells producing myelin basic protein and ruin the coats on nerve cells.

"These results," the authors noted, "demonstrate a role for dual-receptor cells in autoimmunity." The study also points to why a ubiquitous viral infection could leave most people without any lasting effects, but trigger autoimmunity in genetically predisposed individuals.

The findings open a new perspective on the proposal that multiple sclerosis is virally induced, despite the inability to detect infectious virus in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients. Data from other studies show that CD8+T cells can cross the blood-brain barrier, and also that multiple sclerosis patients have more central nervous system protein-specific CD8+T cells, compared to healthy people.

In the dual-receptor model, the autoimmune activity against nerve protein can continue after the virus is wiped out. Multiple sclerosis patients usually have high levels of antibodies indicating past infectious from several common viruses, but a live virus associated with multiple sclerosis has not been consistently observed. Therefore, to date, no specific virus has been confirmed as a causative agent for multiple sclerosis.

The authors explained that it's possible that multiple viruses could influence susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. The ability of any particular virus to contribute to the disease could depend on an individual's own repertoire of other predisposing genes, exposure to other predisposing environmental factors, and the random chance that T cells had been generated that recognize a myelin protein and a pathogen.

Receptors on T cells are randomly generated during their development. This observation helps explain why multiple sclerosis is partly a matter of chance. Some people with a genetic predisposition and environmental exposure develop the disease, while others with similar genetic predisposition and environmental exposure do not.

It's uncertain how common these dual-receptor T cells are, according to the researchers, although there are reports that up to one-third of human T cells express dual receptors. Goverman and her group plan to test samples from multiple sclerosis patients and see how many have dual-receptor T-cells.


Je zelfbeeld bepaalt vaak de grenzen
van wat je als individu kunt bereiken.


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vonneke
Berichten: 7127
Lid geworden op: Do 16 Jun 2005 20:57

Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 4 Jul 2010 14:41

Brain. 2010 Jul;133(Pt 7):1869-88.

Is hypovitaminosis D one of the environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis?

Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Souberbielle JC.

Service de Neurologie 1, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, 47 bd de l'Hôpital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, 75653, Paris Cedex 13, France. cp.deseilligny@psl.aphp.fr

Abstract
The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical physiological notions about vitamin D have recently been challenged and the main new findings are summarized. This vitamin could have an important immunological role involving a number of organs and pathologies, including autoimmune diseases and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, human requirements for this vitamin are much higher than previously thought, and in medium- or high-latitude countries, they might not be met in the majority of the general population due to a lack of sunshine and an increasingly urbanized lifestyle. Thereafter, the different types of studies that have helped to implicate hypovitaminosis D as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis are reviewed. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, vitamin D has been shown to play a significant immunological role. Diverse epidemiological studies suggest that a direct chain of causality exists in the general population between latitude, exposure to the sun, vitamin D status and the risk of multiple sclerosis. New epidemiological analyses from France support the existence of this chain of links. Recently reported immunological findings in patients with multiple sclerosis have consistently shown that vitamin D significantly influences regulatory T lymphocyte cells, whose role is well known in the pathogenesis of the disease. Lastly, in a number of studies on serum levels of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis, an insufficiency was observed in the great majority of patients, including at the earliest stages of the disease. The questionable specificity and significance of such results is detailed here. Based on a final global analysis of the cumulative significance of these different types of findings, it would appear likely that hypovitaminosis D is one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis.

PMID: 20584945

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 4 Jul 2010 14:43

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/193628.php

Brain Atrophy Responsible For Depression In People Battling Multiple Sclerosis

Adding to all that ails people managing their multiple sclerosis is depression for which MS sufferers have a lifetime risk as high as 50 percent.

Yet despite its prevalence, the cause of this depression is not understood. It's not related to how severe one's MS is, and it can occur at any stage of the disease. That suggests it is not simply a psychological reaction that comes from dealing with the burden of a serious neurologic disorder.

Now, in the first such study in living humans, researchers at UCLA suggest a cause, and it's not psychological, but physical: atrophy of a specific region of the hippocampus, a critical part of the brain involved in mood and memory, among other functions.

Reporting in the early online edition of the journal Biological Psychiatry, senior study author Dr. Nancy Sicotte, a UCLA associate professor of neurology, Stefan Gold, lead author and a postdoctoral fellow in the UCLA Multiple Sclerosis Program, and colleagues used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to identify three key sub-regions of the hippocampus that were found to be smaller in people with MS when compared with the brains of healthy individuals.

The researchers also found a relationship between this atrophy and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a complex set of interactions among three glands. The HPA axis is part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and regulates many physiological processes. It's thought that this dysregulation may play a role in the atrophy of the hippocampus and the development of depression.

"Depression is one of the most common symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis," Gold said. "It impacts cognitive function, quality of life, work performance and treatment compliance. Worst of all, it's also one of the strongest predictors of suicide."

The researchers examined three sub-regions of the hippocampus region CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus area of the hippocampal region called CA23DG (CA stands for cornu ammonis). They imaged 29 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis and compared them with 20 healthy control subjects who did not have MS. They also measured participants' cortisol level three times a day; cortisol is a major stress hormone produced by the HPA axis that affects many tissues in the body, including the brain.

In addition to the difference between MS patients and healthy controls, the researchers found that the multiple sclerosis patients diagnosed with depression showed a smaller CA23DG sub-region of the hippocampus, along with excessive release of cortisol from the HPA axis.

"Interestingly, this idea of a link between excessive activity of the HPA axis and reduced brain volume in the hippocampus hasn't received a lot of attention, despite the fact that the most consistently reproduced findings in psychiatric patients with depression (but without MS) include hyperactivity of the HPA axis and smaller volumes of the hippocampus," Sicotte said.

"So the next step is to compare MS patients with depression to psychiatric patients with depression to see how the disease progresses in each," she said

Je zelfbeeld bepaalt vaak de grenzen
van wat je als individu kunt bereiken.


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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Za 10 Jul 2010 15:00

http://www.ntvg.nl/publicatie/Geen-vaat ... S/volledig

: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2010;154:C617

Vernauwingen in de halsaderen bij patiënten met multipele sclerose (MS) zijn zeer waarschijnlijk niet de oorzaak van MS, zo concluderen onderzoekers van het MS Centrum Amsterdam van het VUmc. In een persbericht stellen zij: ‘Bij recent voltooid onderzoek vonden wij dat vernauwingen in de halsaderen in gelijke mate voorkomen bij patiënten met MS als bij gezonde personen. Bovendien blijkt dat deze vernauwingen niet leiden tot problemen met de afvoer van bloed uit de hersenen.’ De onderzoekers raden een dotterbehandeling van deze aderen dan ook af.

Eerder berichtten wij over de bevindingen van de Italiaanse vaatchirurg Zamboni (Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2010;154:C494). Volgens hem wordt MS niet veroorzaakt door een ontregeling van het immuunsysteem, maar door ‘chronische cerebrospinale veneuze insufficiëntie’. Patiënten met MS zouden baat hebben bij een dotterbehandeling en Zamboni verrichtte een oriënterend onderzoek met deze behandeling. Bij MS-patiënten wereldwijd waren de verwachtingen zeer hooggespannen en ook Nederlandse MS-patiënten laten zich al behandelen in Duitsland en Polen. In het VUmc werden 20 MS-patiënten en 20 personen zonder MS onderzocht met MR-venografie op de aanwezigheid van vernauwingen in de aderen. Ook de bloedafvoer in de hersenen werd bekeken.8 van de 20 controlepersonen en 10 van de 20 MS-patiënten hadden vernauwingen van de halsaderen. De grootte en de richting van bloedstroom in de hersenen was normaal bij alle deelnemers. De onderzoekers: ‘Afwijkingen in het veneuze systeem zijn dus ongeveer even vaak te zien bij MS-patiënten als bij gezonde controlepersonen. Omdat er bij geen enkele onderzochte persoon sprake is van veranderingen van de bloedstroom, gaat het om normale variaties en zeker niet om afwijkingen die behandeling behoeven.’

Zij wijzen er wel op dat hun onderzoek is gedaan met relatief weinig proefpersonen en dat het mogelijk is dat andere technieken aanvullende inzichten opleveren. Het VUmc zal het onderzoek voortzetten met een grotere groep patiënten. (Bijdrage: Martin Kabos.)

Je zelfbeeld bepaalt vaak de grenzen
van wat je als individu kunt bereiken.


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vonneke
Berichten: 7127
Lid geworden op: Do 16 Jun 2005 20:57

Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor vonneke » Wo 11 Aug 2010 15:12

Study Questions Alternative Theory For How MS Arises :

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/196879.php

Je zelfbeeld bepaalt vaak de grenzen
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bamboe
Berichten: 4028
Lid geworden op: Di 23 Dec 2008 4:30

Re: Van alles m.b.t. MS

Berichtdoor bamboe » Zo 15 Sep 2013 15:43

Bij 1min15 zegt Thomas Levy dat hij ging lezen in zijn neurologieboek en daar in de eerste paragraaf stond als belangrijk kenmerk dat mensen met MS hun vermogen om te zweten verloren hebben. Hij zegt:

¨Does that ring any bell? It basically means these people have lost their ability to get rid of the garbage in their body, especially mercery.¨


Je moet het als chronische zieke (MS-) patient wel heel langzaam opbouwen als je weer wil gaan leren zweten in een sauna.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUUZTNjV9dI
Healing Health Ailments and The Power of Vitamin C by Tom Levy, M.D.
Published on Jun 19, 2013


Women with Multiple Sclerosis experience high rates of cardiovascular disease
Sunday, February 24, 2013 by: Katie BrindAmour

As if Multiple Sclerosis (MS) weren't bad enough, the condition and its complications seem to affect women disproportionately. Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from MS, and recent research indicates that women with MS are also more likely to experience cardiovascular disease than men with the same condition. On the whole, individuals with MS are more likely than the general population to experience heart attacks, strokes, and heart failure. http://www.naturalnews.com/039232_Multi ... z2MUgUq6J6


Jpn Heart J. 2004 Mar;45(2):297-303.
Repeated sauna therapy reduces urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F(2alpha).
Masuda A, Miyata M, Kihara T, Minagoe S, Tei C.

Department of Cardiology, Respiratory and Metabolic Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.
Abstract
These results suggest that repeated sauna therapy may protect against oxidative stress, which leads to the prevention of atherosclerosis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15090706


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