Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

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vonneke
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Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

Berichtdoor vonneke » Wo 9 Dec 2009 14:15

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/173193.php


Restless Leg Syndrome Linked To Magnesium Deficiency

Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a form of insomnia characterized by an overwhelming urge to move the legs when they are at rest, especially during sleep. RLS affects about 10% of the people in the U.S. It runs in families and may have a genetic component. Recent research has found that people with restless leg syndrome are deficient in the mineral magnesium.

According to the National Sleep Foundation, almost six out of ten Americans report having insomnia and sleep problems at least a few nights a week. Other types of insomnia include sleep apnea, which involves interrupted breathing and snoring during the night; narcolepsy - which causes people to fall asleep throughout the daytime; insomnia from hormone fluctuations such as with menstruation or menopause; and insomnia from the use of medications, caffeine or alcohol.

Those who have restless leg syndrome experience unpleasant sensations in the legs described as creeping, crawling, tingling, pulling, or painful. These sensations usually occur in the calf area but may be felt anywhere from the thigh to the ankle. People with RLS often experience chronic insomnia and sleeplessness due to the strong urge to walk or do other activities to relieve the sensations in their legs.

In one study from the Romanian Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry, researchers conducted biochemical and neurological tests in 10 cases of restless leg syndrome. The investigators reported important disorders of sleep organization. They found agitated sleep with frequent periods of nocturnal awakenings, and a decrease of the duration and percentage of the deeper rapid eye movement (REM) sleep - also found in other forms of insomnia caused by magnesium deficiency

According to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Human Nutrition Research Center in North Dakota, "Magnesium plays a key role in the body's chemistry that regulates sleep. This may be why persons with long-term lack of sleep, or abnormal brain waves during deep sleep, often have low magnesium in their blood….Magnesium treatment increased deep sleep and improved brain waves during sleep in 12 elderly subjects. Magnesium treatment also decreased time to fall asleep and improved sleep quality of 11 alcoholic patients who often have a low magnesium status."

Regarding the use of nutritional sleep aids containing magnesium for relief of restless leg syndrome and other sleep problems, certain formulas are more effective than others. The combination of minerals included and the presence of cofactors in the product are key. Formulas should contain a 2 to 1 ratio of calcium to magnesium. The original research on this recommended ratio appeared in 1935 in the Journal of Physiological Reviews (2) and is made on the basis of long-term metabolic studies in men and women.

One natural sleep aid showing good results is Sleep Minerals II, made by Nutrition Breakthroughs in Glendale, CA. This sleep aid contains six types of calcium, three forms of magnesium, boron, Vitamin D, Vitamin K and horsetail herb - all combined in a softgel with carrier oils. Oils such as evening primrose have been shown to increase mineral absorption, reduce calcium excretion, and increase bone density.

Source
Nutrition Breakthroughs

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 31 Jan 2010 12:45


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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 31 Jan 2010 12:47

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/177416.php

Elevated Brain Levels Of Magnesium Enhance Learning And Memory

New research finds that an increase in brain magnesium improves learning and memory in young and old rats. The study, published by Cell Press in the January 28th issue of the journal Neuron, suggests that increasing magnesium intake may be a valid strategy to enhance cognitive abilities and supports speculation that inadequate levels of magnesium impair cognitive function, leading to faster deterioration of memory in aging humans.

Diet can have a significant impact on cognitive capacity. Identification of dietary factors which have a positive influence on synapses, the sites of communication between neurons, might help to enhance learning and memory and prevent their decline with age and disease. Professor Guosong Liu, Director of the Center for Learning and Memory at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, led a study examining whether increased levels of one such dietary supplement, magnesium, boosts brain power

"Magnesium is essential for the proper functioning of many tissues in the body, including the brain and, in an earlier study, we demonstrated that magnesium promoted synaptic plasticity in cultured brain cells," explains Dr. Liu. "Therefore it was tempting to take our studies a step further and investigate whether an increase in brain magnesium levels enhanced cognitive function in animals."

Because it is difficult to boost brain magnesium levels with traditional oral supplements, Dr. Liu and colleagues developed a new magnesium compound, magnesium-L-threonate (MgT) that could significantly increase magnesium in the brain via dietary supplementation. They used MgT to increase magnesium in rats of different ages and then looked for behavioral and cellular changes associated with memory.

"We found that increased brain magnesium enhanced many different forms of learning and memory in both young and aged rats," says Dr. Liu. A close examination of cellular changes associated with memory revealed an increase in the number of functional synapses, activation of key signaling molecules and an enhancement of short- and long-term synaptic processes that are crucial for learning and memory.

The authors note that the control rats in this study had a normal diet which is widely accepted to contain a sufficient amount of magnesium, and that the observed effects were due to elevation of magnesium to levels higher than provided by a normal diet.

"Our findings suggest that elevating brain magnesium content via increasing magnesium intake might be a useful new strategy to enhance cognitive abilities," explains Dr. Liu. "Moreover, half the population of industrialized countries has a magnesium deficit, which increases with aging. This may very well contribute to age-dependent memory decline; increasing magnesium intake might prevent or reduce such decline."

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 31 Jan 2010 12:50


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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 31 Jan 2010 12:53

Magnes Res. 2003 Jun;16(2):98-105.

Protective effect of magnesium and MK 801 on hypoxia-induced hair cell loss in new-born rat cochlea.

König O, Winter E, Fuchs J, Haupt H, Mazurek B, Weber N, Gross J.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Charité Hospital, Humboldt University, Schumannstrasse 20-21, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

Hypoxia is a pathogenetic factor in various inner ear diseases, and increasing importance is attached to the protection of the cochlea from traumatic influences. It was recently demonstrated in guinea pigs that magnesium can significantly reduce ischemia- and impulse noise-induced hearing loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate if magnesium has a protective effect on hypoxia-induced hair cell loss using an in vitro model of the new-born rat cochlea In view of the NMDA receptor-antagonistic action of magnesium, we tested MK 801, a highly potent and selective non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist. Organotypic cochlea cultures were exposed to hypoxia (pO2 = 10-20 mm Hg at 37 degrees C) in DMEM medium containing magnesium (0.75 or 3.0 mmol/l) or MK801 (1 or 10 micromol/l) for 24 or 36 h. The cultures were phalloidin-labeled for counting the number of outer and inner hair cells (OHC/IHC). The mean damage in normoxic controls was 1-4%. IHC revealed a significantly higher susceptibility to hypoxia than OHC. In the normal magnesium group (0.75 mmol/l), 36-hour exposure to hypoxia caused a mean loss of about 25% OHC and 60% IHC. In the groups treated with either 3.0 mmol magnesium or 10 microm MK 801, the damage was significantly reduced to about 10% in OHC and 35% in IHC. This study supports previous in vivo observations in the guinea pig demonstrating the protective effects of magnesium on noise-induced impairment of inner ear oxygenation.

PMID: 12892379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 31 Jan 2010 12:54

Rom J Intern Med. 2009;47(2):169-71.

Changes of magnesium serum levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke and acute infections.

Cojocaru IM, Cojocaru M, Tănăsescu R, Iacob SA, Iliescu I.

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Neurology, Intensive Care Unit, Colentina Clinical Hospital, Romania. mcojocar@cmb.ro

Magnesium (Mg) deficiency seems to be implicated in immune dysfunction, including acute and chronic infections. Magnesium serum levels in 53 patients with acute ischemic stroke and acute bacterial (37 patients) and acute viral infections (16 patients) (29 men and 24 women, mean age 68.6+/-4.7 years) were analyzed as compared to 36 healthy subjects. As Mg is mainly an intracellular ion, assessment of Mg status is difficult. Mg serum levels were determined by the colorimetric method. Data were statistically analyzed. In patients with acute bacterial infections (sepsis, bronchopneumonia, urinary tract infections) a statistically significant decrease of Mg serum concentrations was found (1.26+/-0.12 mEq/L vs 1.69+/-0.14 mEq/L, p<0.001). In patients with acute viral infections, the decrease of Mg serum levels was significantly less (1.64+/-0.13 mEq/L vs 1.69+/-0.14 mEq/L, p<0.05). The change onset of Mg occurred within a few days and persisted for several weeks. These changes seemed to be non-specific and were independent of the agent causing bacterial infection. Patients with sepsis having a high degree of inflammation did not show a positive correlation between the severity of the disease and the changes of Mg. In conclusion, the measurement of Mg serum in bacterial infections is useful and physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for hypomagnesemia and implement Mg therapy.

PMID: 20067167 [PubMed - in process]


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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 31 Jan 2010 13:07

http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/en/r ... icle.phtml

Lyme disease with magnesium deficiency

A low serum magnesium concentration was also found ‐‐ 1.21 mEq\L (14.7 mg\L


After 5 days the patient was reevaluated and the evolution was slowly favorable, with the disappearance of the inflammatory erythema, but again he had marked hypomagnesaemia


January 2003, we had under observation other two cases, in which the presence of both IgM and IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi was serologically confirmed at high titers
and significant magnesium deficiency



Three more cases have been described in the literature since 1997, in which Lyme disease was associated with magnesium deficiency, according to the data presented by EUCALB (European Union Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis) [18].
We believe that in certain diseases, Mg deficiency can cause a decrease in immune response. The appearance of recurrences, which are frequently reported in the literature, in spite of adequate antibiotic therapy, could represent an argument for this. This is why the use of Mg derivatives in therapy can represent an immunostimulating factor.



The presence of Mg deficiency causes the appearance of a secondary immunodeficiency syndrome which requires the treatment of the patient not only with large spectrum antibiotics but also with magnesium in order to obtain efficient results in the long term.


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suppakilla
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

Berichtdoor suppakilla » Zo 31 Jan 2010 14:51

Sinds ik magnesium supplement en vit B. neem heb ik veel minders last van Restless Leggs.
Veel wandelen helpt ook wel, dan gebruik je de energie uit je benen meer.

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 2 Mei 2010 12:28

http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/magnesium-000313.htm

Overview:
Every organ in the body -- especially the heart, muscles, and kidneys -- needs the mineral magnesium. It also contributes to the makeup of teeth and bones. Most important, it activates enzymes, contributes to energy production, and helps regulate calcium levels as well as copper, zinc, potassium, vitamin D, and other important nutrients in the body.

You can get magnesium from many foods. However, most people in the United States probably do not get as much magnesium as they should from their diet. Foods rich in magnesium include whole grains, nuts, and green vegetables. Green leafy vegetables are particularly good sources of magnesium.

Although you may not get enough magnesium from your diet, it' s rare to be truly deficient in magnesium. Certain medical conditions, however, can upset the body's magnesium balance. For example, an intestinal virus that causes vomiting or diarrhea can cause temporary magnesium deficiencies. Some gastrointestinal diseases (such as irritable bowel syndrome or IBS and ulcerative colitis), diabetes, pancreatitis, hyperthyroidism (high thyroid hormone levels), kidney disease, and taking diuretics can lead to deficiencies. Too much coffee, soda, salt, or alcohol as well as heavy menstrual periods, excessive sweating, and prolonged stress can also lower magnesium levels

Symptoms of magnesium deficiency may include agitation and anxiety, restless leg syndrome (RLS), sleep disorders, irritability, nausea and vomiting, abnormal heart rhythms, low blood pressure, confusion, muscle spasm and weakness, hyperventilation, insomnia, poor nail growth, and even seizures




Uses:
Getting enough magnesium may help conventional treatment for the following conditions work better:

Asthma

Several studies show that intravenous (IV) magnesium and magnesium inhaled through a nebulizer can help treat acute attacks of asthma in children aged 6 - 18 as well as adults. But there is no evidence that taking oral magnesium helps control asthma symptoms. Low levels of magnesium may increase risk of developing asthma. A population-based clinical study of more than 2,500 children aged 11 - 19 years found that low dietary magnesium intake may be associated with risk of asthma. The same was found in a group of more than 2,600 adults aged 18 - 70.

Diabetes

People who have type 2 diabetes often have low levels of magnesium in the blood. A large clinical study of over 2000 people found that getting more magnesium in the diet may help protect against developing type 2 diabetes. Some -- though not all -- studies suggest that taking magnesium supplements may help blood sugar control and insulin sensitivity in people with diabetes or prediabetes.

Fibromyalgia

A small preliminary clinical study of 24 people with fibromyalgia suggest that a proprietary tablet containing both malic acid and magnesium may improve pain and tenderness associated with fibromyalgia when taken for at least 2 months. Other studies suggest the combination of calcium and magnesium may be helpful for some people with fibromyalgia.

However, a review article evaluating a number of studies found that magnesium with malic acid offered no pain relief. More studies are needed.

Noise-related hearing loss

One study suggests that taking magnesium may prevent temporary or permanent hearing loss due to very loud noise.

Arrhythmia and heart failure

Magnesium is essential to heart health. It helps maintain a normal heart rhythm and is sometimes given intravenously (IV) in the hospital to reduce the chance of atrial fibrillation and cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). People with congestive heart failure (CHF) are often at risk for developing cardiac arrhythmia. For this reason, your doctor may decide that magnesium should be a part of the treatment of CHF. One well-designed study found that taking magnesium orotate for a year reduced symptoms and improved survival rates compared to placebo in people with CHF. Magnesium and calcium need to work together at very precise ratios to ensure your heart functions properly. If you have a cardiac history, talk to your doctor before taking magnesium supplements

Results of studies using magnesium to treat heart attack survivors, however, have been mixed. Some have reported lower death rates as well as fewer arrhythmias and improved blood pressure when magnesium is used as part of the treatment following a heart attack. But one study found that magnesium slightly increased the risk of sudden death, chance of another heart attack, or need for bypass surgery in the year after a heart attack. If you have had a heart attack, your doctor will decide if magnesium supplementation, either IV or orally, is right for you.

High blood pressure

Eating low-fat dairy products along with lots of fruits and vegetables on a regular basis is associated with lower blood pressure. All of these foods are rich in magnesium as well as calcium and potassium. A large clinical study of more than 8,500 women found that a higher intake of dietary magnesium may decrease the risk of high blood pressure in women. A few studies also suggest that magnesium supplements may help lower blood pressure, although not all studies agree.

Migraine headache

A few studies suggest that taking magnesium supplements may help prevent migraine headaches. In addition, a few clinical studies suggest that magnesium supplements may shorten the duration of a migraine and reduce the amount of medication needed. People who have migraine headaches tend to have lower levels of magnesium compared to those with tension headaches or no headaches at all.

Some experts suggest combining magnesium with the herb feverfew along with vitamin B2 (riboflavin) may be helpful when you have a headache.

However, some studies suggest that magnesium sulfate may be less effective than prescription medications for preventing migraines in those who have 3 or more headaches per month. The only exception to this may be women who get migraine headaches around the time of their period.

Osteoporosis

Not getting enough calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and other micronutrients may play a role in the development of osteoporosis. To prevent osteoporosis, it is important to get enough calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D; to eat a well-balanced diet; and to do weight-bearing exercises throughout life.

Preeclampsia and eclampsia

Preeclampsia is characterized by a sharp rise in blood pressure during the third trimester of pregnancy. Women with preeclampsia may develop seizures, which is then called eclampsia. Magnesium, given in the hospital intravenously (IV), is the treatment of choice to prevent or treat seizures associated with eclampsia or to prevent complications from preeclampsia.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Scientific studies suggest that magnesium supplements may help relieve symptoms associated with PMS, particularly bloating, insomnia, leg swelling, weight gain, and breast tenderness. One study suggests that a combination of magnesium and vitamin B6 may work better than either one alone.

Restless legs syndrome

A small clinical study including only 10 patients found that magnesium improved insomnia related to restless legs syndrome (a disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the legs, which are worse during periods of inactivity or rest or while sitting or lying down).




Dietary Sources:
Rich sources of magnesium include tofu, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, wheat bran, Brazil nuts, soybean flour, almonds, cashews, blackstrap molasses, pumpkin and squash seeds, pine nuts, and black walnuts. Other good dietary sources of this mineral include peanuts, whole wheat flour, oat flour, beet greens, spinach, pistachio nuts, shredded wheat, bran cereals, oatmeal, bananas, and baked potatoes (with skin), chocolate, and cocoa powder. Many herbs, spices, and seaweeds supply magnesium, such as agar seaweed, coriander, dill weed, celery seed, sage, dried mustard, basil, cocoa powder, fennel seed, savory, cumin seed, tarragon, marjoram, poppy seed



Available Forms:
Magnesium is available in many forms. Recommended types include magnesium citrate, magnesium gluconate, and magnesium lactate, all of which are more easily absorbed into the body than other forms. Time-release preparations may improve absorption. Ask your health care provider.

Other familiar sources are magnesium hydroxide (often used as a laxative or antacid) and magnesium sulfate (generally used orally as a laxative or in multivitamins, or added to a bath). Some magnesium can be absorbed through the skin



How to Take It:
Be sure to check with your health care provider before taking magnesium supplements and before considering them for a child. Under certain circumstances, such as certain heart arrhythmias or preeclampsia, a doctor will give magnesium intravenously (IV) in the hospital.

It is a good idea to take a B vitamin complex, or a multivitamin containing B vitamins, because the level of vitamin B6 in the body determines how much magnesium will be absorbed into the cells.

Dosages are based on the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) issued from the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States Government's Office of Dietary Supplements, part of the National Institutes of Health.

Pediatric

Do not give magnesium supplements to a child without a doctor' s supervision.

•Infants and children up to 3 years of age: 40 - 80 mg daily
•Children 4 - 6 years of age: 120 mg daily
•Children 7 - 10 years of age: 170 mg daily
Adult

•Adolescent and adult males: 270 - 400 mg daily
•Adolescent and adult females: 280 - 300 mg daily
•Pregnant females: 320 mg daily
•Breastfeeding females: 340 - 335 mg daily
A person' s need for magnesium increases during pregnancy, recovery from surgery and illnesses, and athletic training.



Precautions:
Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, dietary supplements should be taken only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

People with heart or kidney disease should not take magnesium supplements except under their doctor's supervision.

It is very rare to overdose on magnesium from food. However, people who ingest large amounts of milk of magnesia (as a laxative or antacid) or epsom salts (as a laxative or tonic) may overdose, especially if they have kidney problems. Too much magnesium can cause serious health problems, including nausea, vomiting, severely lowered blood pressure, slowed heart rate, deficiencies of other minerals, confusion, coma, and even death.

More common side effects from magnesium include upset stomach and diarrhea.

Magnesium competes with calcium for absorption and can cause a calcium deficiency if calcium levels are already low. Some medications may lower magnesium levels in the body. These include chemotherapy drugs, diuretics, digoxin (Lanoxin), hormonal supplementation, steroids, and certain antibiotics.



Possible Interactions:
If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use magnesium without first talking to your health care provider.

Antibiotics -- Taking magnesium supplements may reduce the absorption of quinolone antibiotics, tetracycline antibiotics, and nitrofurantoin (Macrodandin). Magnesium should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after taking these medications. Quinolone and tetracycline antibiotics include:

•Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
•Moxifloxacin (Avelox)
•Tetracycline (Sumycin)
•Doxycycline (Vibramycin)
•Minocycline (Minocin)
Blood Pressure Medications, Calcium Channel Blockers -- Magnesium may increase the risk of negative side effects (such as dizziness, nausea, and fluid retention) from calcium channel blockers (particularly nifedipine or Procardia) in pregnant women. Other calcium channel blockers include:

•Aamlodipine (Norvasc)
•Diltiazem (Cardizem)
•Felodipine (Plendil)
•Verapamil (Calan

Medications for diabetes -- Magnesium hydroxide, commonly found in antacids such as Alternagel, may increase the absorption of some medications used to control blood sugar levels (particularly glipizide or Glucatrol and glyburide or Micronase). If you take these medications to control blood sugar, your doctor may need to adjust your dose.

Digoxin (Lanoxin) -- Low blood levels of magnesium can increase negative effects from digoxin, including heart palpitations and nausea. In addition, digoxin can cause more magnesium to be lost in the urine. A doctor will monitor magnesium levels in people taking digoxin to see whether they need a magnesium supplement.

Diuretics -- Two types of diuretics known as loop (such as furosemide or Lasix) and thiazide (including hydrochlorothiazide) diuretics can lower magnesium levels. For this reason, doctors who prescribe diuretics may recommend magnesium supplements as well.

Hormone Replacement Therapy -- Magnesium levels tend to decrease during menopause. Clinical studies suggest, however, that hormone replacement therapy may help prevent the loss of this mineral. Postmenopausal women or those taking hormone replacement therapy should talk with a health care provider about the risks and benefits of magnesium supplementation.

Levothyroxine -- There have been case reports of magnesium-containing antacids reducing the effectiveness of levothyroxine, a medication that treats underactive thyroid

Penicillamine -- Penicillamine, a medication used to treat Wilson's disease (a condition characterized by high levels of copper in the body) and rheumatoid arthritis, can inactivate magnesium, particularly when high doses of the drug are used over a long period of time. Supplementation with magnesium and other nutrients may reduce side effects associated with penicillamine. If you take penicillamine, a health care provider can determine whether magnesium supplements are right for you.

Tiludronate (Skelid) and Alendronate (Fosamax) -- Magnesium may interfere with absorption of medications used in osteoporosis, including alendronate (Fosamax). Magnesium or antacids containing magnesium should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after taking these medications.

Others -- Aminoglycoside antibiotics (such as gentamicin and tobramycin), thiazide diuretics (such as hydrochlorothiazide), loop diuretics (such as furosemide and bumetanide), amphotericin B, corticosteroids (prednisone or Deltasone), antacids, and insulin may lower magnesium levels. Please refer to the depletions monographs on some of these medications for more information.


•Reviewed last on: 6/25/2009
•Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network

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vonneke
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Re: Van alles m.b.t. magnesium

Berichtdoor vonneke » Zo 23 Mei 2010 10:06

Effect of magnesium and zinc on antimicrobial activities of some antibiotics.

Khan F, Patoare Y, Karim P, Rayhan I, Quadir MA, Hasnat A.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.

Abstract
Mg and Zn are essential elements in biological system. They are essential for enzymatic activity, maintaining three-dimensional structure of proteins, for the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins etc. Deficiency of Mg and Zn causes different life threatening diseases. That is why the optimum level of Mg and Zn must be maintained for all biological systems. The experiment was aimed to evaluate the effect of magnesium and zinc on the efficacy of antibiotic agents against different microorganisms. It has been observed that the antibiotic activity of an antibiotic agent increased significantly with concomitant use of Mg salt at a concentration ranging from 3-9 microg per antibiotic disc. Similarly, Zn salt increased the activity of an antibiotic at a concentration ranging from 9-15 microg per antibiotic disc. The experiment revealed that concomitant administration of antibiotic with Mg or Zn salt not only will supplement the deficiency of these electrolytes but also will increase the activity of antibiotics against different bacterial strains.

PMID: 16380359

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